Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
Cervical cancer is related to infection by the human papillomavirus (HPV). Though cervical cancer has decreased in the last 40 years as a result of HPV vaccination and Pap smear screening, it is still high among ethnic minority and foreign-born women in the US. Despite the availability of HPV vaccinations to prevent HPV infection, only about a third of female college students have received a vaccination, which falls far short of the Healthy People 2020 HPV vaccination rate goal of 80%. Furthermore, HPV vaccination and Pap smear rates have been low among Asian American women, especially among Koreans in the U.S. Thus, it is vital to develop prevention strategies for this group. Reducing racial/ethnic differences in immunization rates is an important public health goal.
Storytelling can be a powerful way to raise awareness and reduce health inequalities, since it can expand the listener or viewer's understanding of a subject within their social and cultural context by presenting 'real stories' and 'own voices' in similar life settings in which health decisions are made.
This study aimed to investigate whether culturally-grounded storytelling could increase HPV vaccination uptake by providing health information about this disease and its prevention.
Who can participate?
University undergraduate or graduate female students in the Northeast region of the USA who identify themselves as Korean or Korean American, are between the ages of 18 and 26 years, who can speak or read English, and have not yet been vaccinated.
What does the study involve?
The participants were randomly allocated to one of two groups. One group watched a story-telling video of about 17 min. The other group was given written information about HPV and vaccination. Both groups completed surveys before they received the video or written information, after they had received it and 2 months afterwards.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
There were no direct risks to participants. The information learned from this study could help to increase the health and quality of life of the participants.
Where is the study run from?
University of Massachusetts Boston
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
September 2016 to December 2016
Who is funding the study?
American Cancer Society (USA)
Who is the main contact?
MinJin Kim, MinJin.Kim001@umb.edu
Acceptability, feasibility, and preliminary effectiveness of a mobile, web-based storytelling HPV intervention to promote HPV vaccine uptakes among Korean college women
1. Women receiving the STN intervention will have greater knowledge and more positive perceptions (cognitive) and feelings (affective) toward the HPV vaccine compared to the control group at post-intervention.
2. Women receiving the STN intervention will demonstrate a higher intention to receive the HPV vaccine (conative) compared to the control group at post-intervention and at the 2-month follow-up.
3. Women receiving the STN intervention will demonstrate higher HPV vaccine uptake compared to the control group at the 2-month follow-up.
Approved 12/09/2016, University of Massachusetts Boston Institutional Review Board (Office of Research and Sponsored Programs, University of Massachusetts Boston, 100 Morrissey Boulevard, Boston, MA 02125, USA; +1 617-287-5374; firstname.lastname@example.org), ref: #2016146
Randomized controlled trial
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Randomised controlled trial
Patient information sheet
No participant information sheet available.
Knowledge and attitudes toward HPV vaccination
At the end of the baseline survey, participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (a storytelling video intervention) or comparison group (a non-narrative, written statement about HPV and HPV vaccine) by Qualtrics software until each group contained 60 participants.
The experimental group received a theory-led, evidence-based, culturally appropriate storytelling video intervention about HPV and cervical cancer prevention. The video includes three pairs of Korean American college women’s shared thoughts, memories, and ideas about HPV, HPV vaccine and cervical cancer. Additionally, a Korean American physician provides supportive material to fill in gaps not covered by the stories and provide scientific, evidence-based information on HPV, HPV vaccine, and cervical cancer. The video is about 17 minutes in length. The comparison group received written, non-narrative education materials that include a Fact Sheet about HPV infection from the CDC and a HPV vaccine information from the American Cancer Society. Surveys were conducted via an online laboratory at baseline, at post-intervention, and at 2-month follow-up after the intervention.
Primary outcome measure
Initiation of HPV vaccine uptake assessed using a self-report of HPV vaccination initiation at the 2-month follow-up after the intervention.
Secondary outcome measures
1. Knowledge about HPV vaccination
2. Attitudes toward HPV vaccination
3. Intention to receive the HPV vaccine
Surveys were conducted via an online laboratory at baseline, at post-intervention, and at 2-month follow-up after the intervention.
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
1. Current university undergraduate or graduate female students
2. Identified themselves as Korean or Korean American
3. Resident in the northeast region of the U.S.
4. Aged 18-26 years
5. Able to speak or read English
6. Not yet vaccinated against HPV
Target number of participants
Total final enrolment
Participant exclusion criteria
Does not meet inclusion criteria
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
United States of America
Trial participating centre
University of Massachusetts Boston
100 Morrissey Blvd
United States of America
American Cancer Society
Funding Body Type
Funding Body Subtype
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
Results have been published. Several other articles are in press as of December 2019.
IPD sharing statement
The datasets generated and/or analysed during this study will be included in the subsequent results publication.
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
To be made available at a later date
Basic results (scientific)
2019 acceptability results in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31298268 (added 23/12/2019)
2019 baseline characteristics in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30863974 (added 23/12/2019)
2020 results in https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/32012036 (added 06/02/2020)