Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
In the emergency department (ED) pain treatment in acute wounds is often accomplished by injection with a local anesthetic (LA), for example lidocaine. As this can be painful, topical application (application to the surface of the skin) could be a painless alternative. Several studies have already investigated commercially available preparations for this purpose, however, it is not known whether the use of lidocaine without any additives, such as adrenaline (to locally constrict the blood vessels) works to treat pain in wounds requiring wound treatment. The aim of this study is to investigate whether lidocaine hydrochloride soaked gauzes can be successfully used to provide pain relief in treatment of acute traumatic wounds.
Who can participate?
Adults (at least 18) presenting in the emergency department with an acute wound.
What does the study involve?
Patients with acute traumatic wounds presenting to the ED treated with a nursing protocol using lidocaine soaked gauzes are included in the study and are asked about their experiences regarding pain in the period before and during wound treatment.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Benefits are that there will be more attention to the pain experienced by the patient. There are no risks involved besides the use of lidocaine gauzes, as this is standard practice.
Where is the study run from?
Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands)
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
October 2014 to December 2014
Who is funding the study?
Investigator initiated and funded
Who is the main contact?
Dr Milan Ridderikhof
Anaesthesia with topical lidocaine hydrochloride gauzes in acute traumatic wounds: an observational study
LIGA Study (Lidocaine Impregnated Gauzes in Acute wounds)
Lidocaine hydrochloride 2% soaked gauzes can effectively be used in providing analgesia in treatment of acute traumatic wounds in adult patients in the ED
Waiver number W14_311#14.17.0374
As the study was purely an observational study (there was already a nursing protocol in use describing the use of lidocaine gauzes in acute wounds) the IRB decided the Medical Research Involving Human Subjects Act did not apply to the study protocol
Observational case series in a single-center (in which a nursing protocol using lidocaine soaked gauzes is already in place)
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Patient information sheet
Adult patients with acute traumatic wounds presenting to the ED
Application of lidocaine hydrochloride (2%) soaked gauze in the wound before wound treatment
Lidocaine hydrochloride 2%
Primary outcome measures
Need for additional infiltration anaesthesia: this was measured at moment of surgical wound treatment at the ED.
Secondary outcome measures
1. NRS pain scores measured just before surgical wound treatment and during surgical wound treatment (in case no additional infiltration anaesthesia was required)
2. Adverse events: measured during the complete ED presentation
3. Satisfaction: measured at the end of wound treatment
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Participant inclusion criteria
1. Age 18 years and older
2. Presentation to the ED with an acute traumatic wound
3. Received analgesic treatment with lidocaine soaked gauzes (according to nursing protocol)
Target number of participants
Convenience sample during 8 weeks
Participant exclusion criteria
1. Age 80 years and older
2. Body weight < 50 kg
3. Known allergy for local anaesthetics
4. Clinical suspicion of nerve injury
5. Manchester Triage System (MTS) category orange or red
6. Wounds due to chemical or thermal injury
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
Academic Medical Center (Academisch Medisch Centrum)
Investigator initiated and funded
Funding Body Type
Funding Body Subtype
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
One article with the main results will be submitted to a medical peer reviewed journal
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
Stored in repository
Results - basic reporting