Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
The COVID-19 pandemic which began in late 2019 has raged across the globe with more than 4 million infections and 300,000 deaths recorded to date. A broad theme of immune overreaction has emerged as a key determinant of disease severity and patient outcome. Intuitively, immunomodulation becomes an attractive potential treatment strategy. Besides lung involvement, COVID-19 is a multi-organ phenomenon and appropriate systemic inflammatory control is necessary for overall survival benefit. Much of the current treatment effort is targeted at viral elimination instead of modulating immune overreaction. A number of immunomodulatory agents may be helpful including vitamin D, magnesium and vitamin B12. Importantly, these compounds are generally safe and well-tolerated by patients. A short course of these three supplements (DMB) could potentially exert synergistic effects to improve COVID-19 severity. This study aims to determine the usefulness of combination of vitamin D, magnesium and vitamin B12 in older COVID-19 patients.
Who can participate?
COVID-19-positive patients aged 50 and over
What does the study involve?
Patients will be given a combination of vitamin D, magnesium and vitamin B12, up to 14 days. The risk of clinical deterioration (requirement for supplemental oxygen and/or intensive care support) is measured using patient records from the hospital information system at day 30.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
If proven to be effective, DMB could reduce the severity of COVID-19 in older patients. There is minimal risk since these supplements are generally safe and well-tolerated by patients.
Where is the study run from?
Singapore General Hospital (Singapore)
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
March 2020 to May 2020
Who is funding the study?
Investigator initiated and funded
Who is the main contact?
Dr Liam Pock Ho
A cohort study to evaluate the effect of combination vitamin D, magnesium and vitamin B12 (DMB) on progression to severe outcome in older COVID-19 patients
Does administering a combination of vitamin D, magnesium and vitamin B12 (DMB) to older COVID-19 patients reduce the severity of their infection?
Approved 19/05/2020, SingHealth institutional ethics committee (Singapore Health Services Pte Ltd, 31 Third Hospital Avenue, #03-03 Bowyer Block C, Singapore, 168753; +65(0) 6225 0488; email@example.com), ref: 2020/2344
Observational cohort study
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Patient information sheet
COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 infection)
Therapy comprised a single daily oral dose of vitamin D3 1000 IU, magnesium 150 mg and vitamin B12 500 mcg for up to 14 days, with follow-up to Day 30 from onset of symptoms.
Primary outcome measure
The risk of clinical deterioration, defined as the requirement for supplemental oxygen and/or intensive care support, measured using patient records from hospital information system at day 30
Secondary outcome measures
There are no secondary outcome measures
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
All consecutive COVID-19-positive patients aged 50 years and above admitted to Singapore General Hospital during the study period
Target number of participants
40 (20 untreated and 20 treated)
Total final enrolment
Participant exclusion criteria
Does not meet inclusion criteria
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
Singapore General Hospital
Investigator initiated and funded
Funding Body Type
Funding Body Subtype
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
In the midst of preparation.
IPD sharing statement
The data-sharing plans for the current study are unknown and will be made available at a later date.
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
To be made available at a later date
Basic results (scientific)