Condition category
Nutritional, Metabolic, Endocrine
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Not provided at time of registration

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Dr Akhil Kapur


Contact details

London Chest Hospital
Barts and the London NHS Trust
Bonner Road
E2 9JX
United Kingdom
+44 (0)20 8983 2413

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number number

Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

A prospective, randomised comparison of optimal coronary angioplasty with use of stenting and abciximab recommended versus up to date coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with diabetes mellitus suitable for either intervention


CARDia trial

Study hypothesis

The aim of the CARDia trial is to establish whether optimal percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is a revascularisation strategy which is non-inferior to up-to-date coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) in diabetic patients with multivessel or complex single vessel coronary artery disease with respect to the well established endpoints of all cause and vascular mortality, non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke. There has to date been no prospective trial addressing this question specifically. This trial is designed to assess the hypothesis that optimal PCI is not inferior to up-to-date CABG.

Ethics approval

Ethics approval received from the Northern and Yorkshire Multi-centre Research Ethics Committee on the 21st August 2001 (ref: MREC1/3/24).

Study design

Multi-centre, randomised, prospective comparison

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Randomised controlled trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet.


Diabetes mellitus


Multi-centre, randomised, prospective comparison with predefined endpoints analysis at 30 days, 6 months, 1-year (primary endpoint), 2-year and 5-year follow-up.

Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) versus percuatenous coronary intervention (PCI). Total duration for follow up is five years.

Intervention type



Not Specified

Drug names


Primary outcome measure

Occurrence of the composite of all-cause death, non-fatal MI, non-fatal stroke at one year.

Secondary outcome measures

1. All individual components of the primary and major secondary endpoints at 30 days, six months, two years and five years
2. Death/MI/target vessel revascularisation (TVR) at six months for bare metal versus sirolimus stents
3. Death/MI/coronary vascular accident (CVA)/further revascularisation at one year for sirolimus stents versus CABG
4. Severe bleeding complications at 30 days
5. New requirement for permanent dialysis
6. Neurological morbidity
7. Quality of life (measured with the EuroQoL (EQ5D) and cognitive assessment questionnaires), assessed at screening, 30-day and six-month follow-up. The EQ5D will also be assessed at 12 months, two years and five years follow-up.
8. Cost difference between treatments
9. Change in left ventricular (LV) function

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

General inclusion criteria:
1. Patients with type I or type II diabetes mellitus (no medication, oral medication, insulin therapy) defined by World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for those patients not on medical treatment, and
2. Coronary stenoses of greater than 50% severity in greater than or equal to two or more coronary arteries or single significant stenosis in proximal left anterior descending (LAD) before the first septal branch or complex bifurcation lesions in any major epicardial vessel, and
3. Stable (Canadian Cardiovascular Society class I - IV) or unstable (Braunwald class IB, IC, IIB, IIC, IIIB, IIIC alongside any intensity of treatment [1 to 3]) angina pectoris or patients with anginal equivalent and evidence of ischaemia (e.g. treadmill exercise test, radionuclide perfusion scanning, stress echocardiography), and
4. Suitable for revascularisation using optimal PCI (including abciximab and stenting) or up-to-date CABG
5. Written informed consent
6. Agreement between cardiothoracic surgeon and cardiologist that the selected case fulfils both inclusion and exclusion criteria
7. Age greater than 18 years and less than 80 years, either sex

Angiographic inclusion criteria:
1. Multivessel disease with one or more significant stenoses in at least two major epicardial coronary arteries (LAD, left circumflex [CX] and right coronary artery [RCA]) or single vessel complex disease defined as:
1.1. A proximal LAD lesion before the first septal branch, or
1.2. A bifurcation lesion involving a side branch and a main epicardial vessel provided they supply different territories
2. Total occlusions of one major epicardial vessel or side branch can be included as long as one other major vessel has a significant stenosis
3. A significant stenosis is defined as a stenosis of at least 50% but less than 100% in luminal diameter (in at least one view, on visual interpretation or by qualitative comparative analysis [QCA])
4. Stenting in lesions with a bifurcation, thrombus, calcification or very long obstruction (greater than 20 mm) is left to the operator’s discretion
5. The number of stents implanted per patient is not restricted

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Participant exclusion criteria

General exclusion criteria:
1. Inability to consent
2. Current participation in another study
3. Greater than 80 years and less than 18 years
4. Congenital heart disease
5. History of previous PCI or CABG
6. When complete follow up over a period of two years is, in the judgement of the investigator, unlikely
7. Inadequate quality of saphenous vein or arterial conduit material
8. Serum creatinine of greater than 250 iu/l or episode of renal dialysis within the 30 days prior to randomisation. However, those on established dialysis greater than six months are eligible for inclusion
9. Q-wave myocardial infarction within the six weeks prior to randomisation
10. Significant valve disease likely to result in requirement for surgery now or within the next five years
11. Other disease shortening life expectancy to less than 12 months
12. Persistence of severe uncontrolled hypertension (blood pressure [BP] greater than 200/120) within the 48 hours prior to randomisation
13. Administration of oral anticoagulation within seven days of planned revascularisation or International normalised ratio (INR) of greater than or equal to 1.4 with ongoing oral anti-coagulation treatment
14. Blood dyscrasia (platelets less than 100, haemoglobin [Hb] less than 8 g/dl, INR greater than 1.4, activated partial thromboplastin time [APTT] greater than 2 x normal, leukocyte count less than 3.5 x 10^9/l, neutrophil count less than 1 x 10^9/l)
15. Intolerance or contraindication to aspirin, clopidogrel or abciximab

Angiographic exclusion criteria:
1. Left main stem stenosis of 50% or more
2. Intention to treat more than one totally occluded major epicardial vessel

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment

United Kingdom

Trial participating centre

London Chest Hospital
E2 9JX
United Kingdom

Sponsor information


Hammersmith Hospitals NHS Trust (UK)

Sponsor details

Du Cane Road
W2 0HS
United Kingdom
+44 (0)20 8383 1000

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

Cordis Johnson and Johnson (UK)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

Eli Lilly and Company Limited (UK)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Not provided at time of registration

Intention to publish date

Participant level data

Not provided at time of registration

Basic results (scientific)

Publication list

2011 substudy results in
2010 results after 1 year in
2005 protocol in

Publication citations

  1. Substudy results

    Kapur A, Qureshi AC, Gallagher S, Finlay M, Malik IS, Mayet J, Roughton M, Beatt KJ, Hall RJ, Nihoyannopoulos P, Myocardial function may improve equally in diabetic patients following both multivessel percutaneous coronary intervention and coronary artery bypass grafting: results from a CARDia trial substudy., Eur J Echocardiogr, 2011, 12, 12, 904-909, doi: 10.1093/ejechocard/jer149.

  2. Protocol

    Kapur A, Malik IS, Bagger JP, Anderson JR, Kooner JS, Thomas M, Punjabi P, Mayet J, Millane T, Goedicke J, Jamrozik K, de Belder MA, Hall RJ, Beatt KJ, The Coronary Artery Revascularisation in Diabetes (CARDia) trial: background, aims, and design., Am. Heart J., 2005, 149, 1, 13-19, doi: 10.1016/j.ahj.2004.07.001.

  3. Kapur A, Hall RJ, Malik IS, Qureshi AC, Butts J, de Belder M, Baumbach A, Angelini G, de Belder A, Oldroyd KG, Flather M, Roughton M, Nihoyannopoulos P, Bagger JP, Morgan K, Beatt KJ, Randomized comparison of percutaneous coronary intervention with coronary artery bypass grafting in diabetic patients. 1-year results of the CARDia (Coronary Artery Revascularization in Diabetes) trial., J. Am. Coll. Cardiol., 2010, 55, 5, 432-440, doi: 10.1016/j.jacc.2009.10.014.

Additional files

Editorial Notes