Condition category
Circulatory System
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Prospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
Anacetrapib is a new cholesterol treatment which is being developed by MSD (known as Merck in the US and Canada). In previous studies anacetrapib reduced levels of ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol in the blood in addition to the reductions achieved with statin drugs, and it more than doubled ‘good’ HDL cholesterol levels. The aim of this study is to see whether fewer participants given anacetrapib have heart attacks, revascularisation procedures or die from coronary heart disease compared with participants treated with a placebo (dummy) drug.

Who can participate?
Men and women aged at least 50 with a history of heart attack, stroke or peripheral arterial disease.

What does the study involve?
All study participants will be given atorvastatin (a commonly used ‘statin’ drug) to ensure good control of LDL (‘bad’) cholesterol. In addition, they will be randomly allocated to receive anacetrapib or matching placebo (dummy) tablets daily for at least 4 years.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Participants in the study will be treated with atorvastatin as background LDL-lowering therapy. Statin treatment is known to reduce the risk of heart attacks and strokes and is generally well-tolerated. However, atorvastatin is associated with a small increase in the risk of liver enzyme abnormalities (although it is not thought to cause liver damage) and can also rarely (typically < 1 in 10,000 per year) cause muscle pain or weakness associated with blood test abnormalities showing muscle damage (known as myopathy). Blood tests will be used to monitor liver function and, where indicated, muscle enzymes, throughout the study. Anacetrapib is not known to have any side effects and, in particular, has not been found to cause elevations in liver enzymes or muscle adverse effects. However, reliable assessment of the safety of anacetrapib in a large-scale outcome study is essential before it can be used in routine practice. On the other hand, the lipid changes that are produced by anacetrapib might well reduce the risk of vascular events substantially and research participants might potentially benefit from participating in the trial.

Where is the study run from?
The Clinical Trial Service Unit (CTSU) at Oxford University (UK)

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
May 2011 to January 2017

Who is funding the study?
Merck and Co, Inc (USA)

Who is the main contact?
Dr Louise Bowman

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Dr Louise Bowman


Contact details

Clinical Trial Service Unit
Richard Doll Building
University of Oxford
Old Road Campus
United Kingdom
+44 (0)1865 743875

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number

2010-023467-18 number


Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

REVEAL: Randomized EValuation of the Effects of Anacetrapib through Lipid-modification. A large-scale, randomized placebo-controlled trial of the clinical effects of anacetrapib among people with established vascular disease



Study hypothesis

To determine whether lipid modification with anacetrapib 100mg daily reduces the risk of coronary death, myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization (collectively known as major coronary events) in patients with circulatory problems who have their LDL cholesterol level treated with a statin.

Ethics approval

Oxfordshire REC B, 25/01/2011, ref: 10/H0605/83

Study design

Multicentre multinational double-blind randomised placebo-controlled parallel-group trial

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Randomised controlled trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use contact details below to request a patient information sheet


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease


Anacetrapib 100 mg daily or matching placebo. All participants receive background LDL-lowering with atorvastatin. Both treatments taken orally.

The median duration of treatment and follow-up will be 4 years, and vary depending on the patient's date of entry into the study. The maximum duration will be 6 years.

Intervention type



Phase III

Drug names


Primary outcome measures

Intention-to-treat comparison among all randomized participants of the effects of allocation to anacetrapib versus placebo on major coronary events (defined as the occurrence of coronary death, myocardial infarction or coronary revascularization procedure) during the scheduled treatment period.

Secondary outcome measures

Current secondary outcome measures as of 05/07/2016:
Intention-to-treat comparisons among all randomized participants of the effects of allocation to anacetrapib versus placebo during the scheduled treatment period on:
1. Major atherosclerotic events (defined as coronary death, myocardial infarction or presumed ischaemic stroke; the key secondary outcome)
2. Presumed ischaemic stroke (i.e. not known to be haemorrhagic)
3. Major vascular events (defined as coronary death, myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization or presumed ischaemic stroke)
In addition, each of the individual components of the primary outcome (i.e. coronary death; myocardial infarction; and coronary revascularization) will be tested separately.

Previous secondary outcome measures:
Intention-to-treat comparisons among all randomized participants of the effects of allocation to anacetrapib versus placebo during the scheduled treatment period on:
1. Coronary death or myocardial infarction (key secondary outcome)
2. Coronary revascularization procedure
3. Presumed ischaemic stroke (i.e. not known to be haemorrhagic)
4. Death from all cardiovascular causes

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned


Participant inclusion criteria

1. Patients must be aged at least 50 at the time of initial invitation
2. At least one of the following inclusion criteria must be satisfied:
2.1. History of Myocardial Infarction (MI)
2.2. Cerebrovascular atherosclerotic disease (i.e. history of presumed ischaemic stroke or carotid revascularization)
2.3. Peripheral arterial disease (i.e. history of non-coronary revascularization, including aortic aneurysm repair or graft)
2.4. Diabetes mellitus with other evidence of symptomatic coronary heart disease (i.e. treatment or hospitalization for angina, or a history of coronary revascularization or acute coronary syndrome)

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Participant exclusion criteria

1. Acute MI, acute coronary syndrome or stroke within 4 weeks prior to Screening Visit or during Run-in (but such individuals may be entered later, if appropriate)
2. Planned coronary revascularization procedure within the next 6 months (such individuals may be entered later, if appropriate)
3. Definite history of chronic liver disease, or abnormal liver function (i.e. ALT >2x ULN). Note: Individuals with a history of acute hepatitis are eligible provided this ALT limit is not exceeded
4. Severe renal insufficiency (i.e. creatinine >200 µmol/L [2.3 mg/dL], dialysis or functioning renal transplant)
5. Evidence of active inflammatory muscle disease (e.g. dermatomyositis, polymyositis), or CK >3x ULN
6. Previous significant adverse reaction to a statin or anacetrapib
7. Current treatment with any of the following lipid-lowering treatments
7.1. a regimen considered to produce substantially greater LDL cholesterol reduction than atorvastatin 80 mg daily for individuals in non-Asian countries or 20 mg daily for those in North East Asia
7.2. fibric acid derivative ('fibrate', including gemfibrozil)
7.3. niacin (nicotinic acid) at doses above 100 mg daily
8. Concurrent treatment with a medication that is contraindicated with anacetrapib or atorvastatin:
8.1. any potent CYP3A4 inhibitor, such as:
8.1.1. macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, clarithromycin, telithromycin)
8.1.2. daptomycin
8.1.3. systemic imidazole or triazole antifungals (e.g. itraconazole, posaconazole)
8.1.4. protease inhibitors (e.g. atazanavir)
8.1.5. nefazodone
8.2. ciclosporin
8.3. systemic use of fusidic acid
9. Known to be poorly compliant with clinic visits or prescribed medication
10. Medical history that might limit the individual’s ability to take trial treatments for the duration of the study (e.g. severe respiratory disease; history of cancer or evidence of spread within last 5 years, other than non-melanoma skin cancer; or recent history of alcohol or substance misuse)
11. Women of child-bearing potential (unless using adequate contraception)
12. Current participation in a clinical trial with an unlicensed drug or device
13. Individuals will also be excluded at the Screening visit if it is considered unlikely that they will achieve total cholesterol <3.5 mmol/L (135 mg/dL) on the highest atorvastatin dose available in their region (atorvastatin 80 mg daily in non-Asian countries or 20 mg daily in North East Asia).
14. In addition, individuals will be excluded at the Randomization visit if any of the following are true:
14.1. Total cholesterol above 4 mmol/L [155 mg/dL]
14.2. Non-compliant with run-in treatment (<90% scheduled run-in medication taken)
14.3. Individual is no longer willing to be randomized into the 4-5 year trial
14.4. The individual’s doctor is of the view that their patient should not be randomized

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment

Canada, China, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Italy, Norway, Sweden, United Kingdom, United States of America

Trial participating centre

University of Oxford
United Kingdom

Sponsor information


University of Oxford (UK)

Sponsor details

University Offices
Wellington Square
United Kingdom
+44 (0)1865 270000

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name


Alternative name(s)

Merck & Co., Inc.

Funding Body Type

private sector organisation

Funding Body Subtype



United States of America

Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

To be confirmed at a later date

Intention to publish date

Participant level data

Not provided at time of registration

Results - basic reporting

Publication summary

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

23/04/2014: the target number of participants was changed from 30,000 to 30,624.