Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
In dentistry, a furcation defect is bone loss, usually a result of periodontal disease, affecting the base of the root trunk of a tooth where two or more roots meet (bifurcation or trifurcation). The extent and configuration of the defect are factors in both diagnosis and treatment planning.
This study aims to compare three methods of assessing furcation defects.
Who can participate?
Patients aged 18 years or above diagnosed with periodontitis and a furcation defect.
What does the study involve?
Particpants will be assessed using periapical radiographs, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and intrasurgical measurements.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
This study can provide benefits to the patients and clinicians in guiding future techniques for tooth examination.
There are no risks expected.
Where is the study run from?
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus, Malaysia
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
September 2017 to January 2020
Who is funding the study?
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia
Who is the main contact?
Dr Nurul Ain Mohamed Yusuf
Diagnostic accuracy of periapical radiograph, cone-beam computed tomography, and intrasurgical measurement techniques for assessing furcation defects
There will be no differences in the linear measurements of furcation defects between CBCT, periapical radiograph, and intrasurgical values
Approved 20/08/2017, Ethical Committee of Universiti Teknologi MARA (, Aras 3, Bangunan Wawasan, 40450 Shah Alam, Selangor, MALAYSIA, +60 3-55442094; firstname.lastname@example.org ), ref: REC/295/17
Parallel randomized single-blinded single centre trial
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Randomised controlled trial
Patient information sheet
Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet
Periodontitis patients that have molar with furcation defects
To evaluate the differences in terms of the linear measurements of furcation defects between periapical radiographs, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT), and intrasurgical measurements
Patients will be randomised to be measured using a combination of CBCT and intrasurgical measurements, or periapical radiographs and intrasurgical measurements.
Randomisation and allocation concealment of patients were performed using sequentially numbered, opaque sealed envelopes (SNOSE).
Primary outcome measure
The extent and severity of furcation defects in molar teeth, including CEJ-BD (clinical attachment loss), BL-H (depth of furcation defect), BL-V (height of furcation defect), RT (root trunk), and FW (width of the furcation defect) measured by radiographs during periodontal surgery
Secondary outcome measures
During periodontal surgery:
1. Probing pocket depth (PPD) (mm) measured by visual inspection
2. Full mouth plaque score measured by visual inspection
3. Full mouth bleeding score measured by visual inspection
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
1. Diagnosis of moderate to severe chronic periodontitis according to American Academy of Periodontology (AAP) 1999 classification workshop, or Periodontitis Stage III or IV according to AAP 2017 classification
2. Full mouth plaque score (FMPS) and full mouth bleeding score (FMBS) ≤ 15%
3. Presence of at least one molar with furcation involvement Class II or III with probing pocket depth (PPD) of ≥ 6 mm that is indicated for periodontal surgery
4. Identifiable cementoenamel junction (CEJ)
5. Ability to sit for all required radiographic surveys
Target number of participants
Participant exclusion criteria
1. Patients with uncontrolled systemic disease
3. Pregnant and lactating women
4. Patients with furcation caries
5. Patients with metal crowns in the furcation area or silver amalgam fillings near the alveolar crest
6. Molar with furcation involvement that is indicated for extraction
7. Third molars
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
Universiti Teknologi MARA, Sungai Buloh Campus
Faculty of Dentistry Jalan Hospital
Institute of Research Management and Innovation, Universiti Teknologi MARA
Institute of Research Management & Innovation, IRMI, UiTM
Funding Body Type
private sector organisation
Funding Body Subtype
Research institutes and centers
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
Planned publication in a high-impact peer-reviewed journal.
IPD sharing statement:
All data generated or analysed during this study will be included in the subsequent results publication
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
Basic results (scientific)