Condition category
Infections and Infestations
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting
Publication status

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
The World Health Organisation (WHO) has been progressing eradication of the viruses measles and rubella (MR) around the world. In Indonesia, the Government has set MR eradication as a priority, after successfully eliminating other viruses such as smallpox and polio. Measles and rubella are still a problem, with over 23,000 measles and over 30,000 rubella cases reported in Indonesia between 2010 and 2015.
Indonesia now has a National MR Campaign, which aims to address the problems with MR and achieve immunisation coverage across Indonesia. Phase 1 of this campaign was completed between August and October 2017, and Phase 2 is scheduled to begin in August and September 2018 across 28 provinces and 395 districts of Indonesia. For daily feedback on campaign progress, a real-time monitoring platform called RapidPro has been used for program monitoring, data collection and information sharing. RapidPro is used in Indonesia with the aim of quickly identifying problem areas and better targeting of corrective action and outreach.
This study aims to look at the effects of RapidPro on achieving the goals of the National MR Campaign, with a focus on immunisation coverage.

Who can participate?
Officers assigned and/or directly related to MR campaign implementation

What does the study involve?
This study will use data from RapidPro to look at how much the platform is used, whether targets are being achieved, and how complete reports are. RapidPro users will be surveyed to determine their satisfaction, problem identification and corrective action. Additionally, there will be interviews with users from all levels in a wide range of environments, to gain a better understanding of their use of RapidPro.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Informants will help inform future adoption of RapidPro for other immunization campaigns and routine immunization. Participants will receive a small gift as token of appreciation and to reimburse their time given to participate in this study. Furthermore, sharing their experience may be personally beneficial to their understanding of their work task and personal reflection of their corrective action; which in turn may increase their professional performance afterwards. There are no known risks to participants taking part in this study. We guarantee anonymity of informants and interviews will only be conducted after consent obtained. Informants are allowed to withdraw anytime or refuse to respond any question that they do not wish to answer.

Where is the study run from?
1. Reconstra (Indonesia)
2. HealthEnabled (South Africa)
3. UNICEF Indonesia (Indonesia)

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
July 2018 to December 2018

Who is funding the study?
GAVI, The Vaccine Alliance (Switzerland)

Who is the main contact?
Iwan Ariawan ( (representing Reconsta, one of the study developers)

Trial website


Contact information



Primary contact

Mr Iwan Ariawan


Contact details

Menara Kadin
Regus Business Centre
30th Floor
Suite 26. Jalan Haji R. Rasuna Said Kav. 2 - 3 Blok X-5
Kuningan Timur
Kuningan Tim.
Kota Jakarta Selatan
Daerah Khusus Ibukota



Additional contact

Ms Patricia Mechael


Contact details

Unit E7A
Westlake Square
Westlake Drive
Cape Town
South Africa
+1 (973) 222-8252



Additional contact

Miss Hafizah Jusril


Contact details

Menara Kadin
Regus Business Centre
30th Floor
Suite 26. Jalan Haji R. Rasuna Said Kav. 2 - 3 Blok X-5
Kuningan Timur
Kuningan Tim.
Kota Jakarta Selatan
Daerah Khusus Ibukota

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number

Nil known number

Nil known

Protocol/serial number

Nil known

Study information

Scientific title

Effective use of an SMS real time monitoring platform on Indonesia's National Measles and Rubella Immunization Campaign: a mixed methods evaluation of RapidPro


RapidPro MR

Study hypothesis

We hypothesise that the effective use of RapidPro and RapidPro data will improve the tracking of immunisation coverage, identification of problems and monitoring the effects of corrective action, therefore increasing effectiveness and efficiency in reaching national measles and rubella immunisation coverage in Indonesia.

Ethics approval

Approved 03/10/2018, Ethics Board Faculty of Public Health Universitas Indonesia (Gedung A lantai 3 Rumpun Ilmu Kesehatan, Universitas Indonesia Depok Campus, Depok (city), Jawa Barat (province), Indonesia, 16424; Tel: +62 (0)21 7864975; Email:, No 695/UN2.F10/PPM.00.02/2018

Study design

Observational prospective longitudinal study

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Longitudinal study

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use contact details to request a participant information sheet




Employing mix method approach, the use of RapidPro in all health facilities in 28 provinces and 395 districts during Phase 2 of the National Measles-Rubella campaign in Indonesia will be evaluated quantitatively and qualitatively. The quantitative component will involve 2 main activities. First, a weekly data export from RapidPro will be analysed, to assess the following:
1. High versus moderate versus passive users
2. Daily target achievement data
3. Time to achieve 80% and 95% of target
4. Completeness of reporting, with a focus on dose response and outcomes (coverage, data completeness, and efficiency).
Second, a mobile-based survey (U Report Survey) will be conducted, where questions will be sent to all RapidPro users to assess perceived satisfaction, problem identification, and corrective action-to be conducted at end of school campaign (August 2018) and the end of the community-based campaign (September 2018).
The qualitative component will involve in-depth interviews with RapidPro reporters (Iimunisation coordinators at community health facilities) and receivers (district health office, province health office, Ministry of Health). In addition to analysis at the central level, we will visit 6 provinces (multi-stage random sampling, stratified by risk and readiness profile) to understand how RapidPro and its data is being used by stakeholders to achieve and measure the achievement of the MR Campaign targets at all levels of the health system.

Intervention type



Drug names

Primary outcome measure

RapidPro effectiveness, translated as tracking immunisation coverage, assessed using secondary analysis of RapidPro data by comparing timely target achievement between highly vs moderate vs passive users on every two weeks during the campaign (August - October 2018)

Secondary outcome measures

1. RapidPro effectiveness, translated as perceived satisfaction, problem identification, and corrective action taken by RapidPro users, assessed using a mobile based survey in the final weeks of the campaign (end of September - October 2018)
2. Effective use of RapidPro, translated as stakeholders experience on using RapidPro to achieve and measure the achievement of the MR Campaign targets, assessed using an in-depth interview during the final weeks of the campaign (end of September - October 2018)

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

Participants should be any of the following:
1. Central level: Immunisation program managers at MoH, UNICEF, and WHO
2. Province level: Immunisation program managers at Province Health Offices
3. District level: Immunisation program managers at District Health Offices
4. Sub-district level: Immunisation coordinators at community health center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat)

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants

Qualitative component participants are at least 81 participants. We also anticipate some proportion of the 7000 users of RapidPro to participate in the mobile survey and will be analysing aggregated data on the number of children immunized throughout the campaign from over 6000 health facilities on 28 provinces in Indonesia.

Participant exclusion criteria

1. Stakeholders who are not entering and/or receiving RapidPro data
2. Stakeholders who are not stationed at selected study sites
3. Stakeholders who decline to participate on study.

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment


Trial participating centre

PT. Reconstra Utama Integra
Menara Kadin, Regus Business Centre, 30th Floor, Suite 26. Jalan Haji R. Rasuna Said Kav. 2 - 3 Blok X-5, Kuningan, Kuningan Timur, RT.1/RW.2, Kuningan Tim., Kota Jakarta Selatan, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 12950

Trial participating centre

Unit E7A, Westlake Square, Westlake Drive, Westlake Cape Town, 7945, South Africa
Cape Town
South Africa

Trial participating centre

UNICEF Indonesia
10th Floor, World Trade Center 6, Jl. Jenderal Sudirman, RT.8/RW.3, Kuningan, Karet, Jakarta, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta 12920

Sponsor information


Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance

Sponsor details

Global Health Campus
Chemin du Pommier 40
1218 Grand-Saconnex
+41 (0)22 909 6500

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

GAVI Alliance

Alternative name(s)


Funding Body Type

private sector organisation

Funding Body Subtype

Trusts, charities, foundations (both public and private)



Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

We aim to submit at least one paper to a peer reviewed journal by the end of January 2019.

IPD sharing statement:
RapidPro generated data will provide information on immunisation coverage on daily basis: number of children immunized as submitted by RapidPro users. Please kindly find details asked on U Report Survey and In-depth interviews attached (Rapidpro tools.pdf). Consent will be obtained from U Report survey participants and interview informants prior data collection. The data will be posted after the study is completed in conjunction with submission of findings to peer-review journals. It will be made available indefinitely or for as long as the database it is housed within makes it available.

Intention to publish date


Participant level data

Available on request

Basic results (scientific)

Publication list

2020 results in (added 11/01/2021)

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

11/01/2021: Publication reference added. 12/07/2019: Ethics approval details added. 09/07/2019: The intention to publish date was changed from 31/01/2019 to 31/08/2019.