Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
Hypoxic training involves training while breathing hypoxic (low oxygen) air. Although not commonly used, hypoxic training may be beneficial for people with clinical conditions such as coronary artery (heart) disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary (lung) disease. However, the effects of hypoxic training vary greatly according to the oxygen level, exercise intensity, time and duration, and also vary considerably among individuals. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of hypoxic training on factors related to metabolic syndrome (a combination of diabetes, high blood pressure and obesity).
Who can participate?
Men aged 18 or over
What does the study involve?
Participants are divided into two groups based on their body mass index. Participants in the overweight and normal-weight groups are then randomly allocated into either the hypoxic exercise group (hypoxic overweight and hypoxic normal-weight) or the normoxic exercise group (normoxic overweight and normoxic normal-weight). Participants perform treadmill exercise three days per week for four weeks under either hypoxic (low oxygen) or normoxic (normal oxygen) conditions, for 50 minutes (including 5 minutes warm-up and cool-down periods) after a 30-minute rest period. Markers of metabolic syndrome are measured using blood sampling at the start and the end of the study.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
These results may show that hypoxic training could be useful for improving arterial (blood vessel) stiffness, circulatory system function, body composition and metabolism in adult men.
Where is the study run from?
Gifu University (Japan)
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
March 2014 to May 2015
Who is funding the study?
University of Ulsan (South Korea)
Who is the main contact?
Dr Sohee Shin
Influences of short-term normobaric hypoxic training on metabolic syndrome-related markers in overweight and normal-weight men: a randomised controlled trial
Short-term normobaric hypoxic training influences metabolic syndrome-related markers in overweight and normal-weight men positively.
Institutional review board of the Gifu University School of Medicine, 06/03/2013, ref: 24-392
Interventional randomised controlled trial
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Randomised controlled trial
Patient information sheet
Not available in web format, please use the contact details to request a patient information sheet
Forty-one Japanese men were included and were divided into two groups based on their body mass indexes (BMIs): BMI ≥25 or BMI <25. Participants in the overweight and normal-weight groups were randomised into the hypoxic exercise group (hypoxic overweight, HO; hypoxic normal-weight, HN) or the normoxic exercise group (normoxic overweight, NO; normoxic normal-weight, NN). Subjects performed treadmill exercise three days per week for four weeks at an exercise intensity of 60% maximum heart rate (HR), under either normobaric hypoxic or normobaric normoxic conditions, for 50 min (including 5 min warm-up and cool-down periods) after a 30-min rest period. Duration of follow-up: 4 weeks.
Primary outcome measure
Metabolic syndrome-related markers, measured using blood sampling at baseline and 1 month
Secondary outcome measures
Body composition, measured using body composition analyzer (TANITA Co., Tokyo, Japan) at baseline and 1 month
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
1. All patients admitted to one of the participating wards
2. Aged 18 years or over
3. Able to provide informed consent to participate
Target number of participants
Planned sample size: 40: Japanese sample size: 40
Participant exclusion criteria
1. Coronary heart disease
2. Cardiac insufficiency
3. Pulmonary disease
4. Uncontrolled hypertension
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
University of Ulsan
University of Ulsan
Funding Body Type
private sector organisation
Funding Body Subtype
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
Planned publication in a high-impact peer reviewed journal.
IPD sharing statement
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are/will be available upon request from Dr Sohee Shin.
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
Available on request
Basic results (scientific)