Condition category
Mental and Behavioural Disorders
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Prospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting
Publication status

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims:
Violence is a leading worldwide public health problem. Interventions in early childhood are an important way to prevent violence. Training young children’s caregivers in behavioural strategies to reduce children’s behavioural problems and promote child social skills can prevent the early development of antisocial behaviour and reduce violence against children by caregivers. The aim of this study is to test whether training preschool teachers in classroom behaviour management strategies and in how to promote young children’s social and emotional skills reduces teachers’ use of corporal punishment and verbal abuse and children’s aggression. We will also examine the effect of the intervention on child and teacher mental health, the quality of the preschool classroom environment and on children’s self-regulation skills and school attendance.

Who can participate?
The study is conducted in preschools in Kingston and St Andrew, Jamaica. Preschools cater to children aged 3-6 years. All teachers and children in the selected schools can participate in the study.

What does the study involve?
Schools are randomly allocated into one of two groups. Teachers from schools in group 1 (intervention group) are invited to participate in training workshops which cover skills in classroom management, effective instruction and teaching social skills to children. Teachers also receive coaching in the skills taught once a month in their classrooms for approximately one hour and receive weekly text messages. The intervention will be conducted over one school year.
Teachers from schools in group 2 (comparison group) are given the same training two years after teachers in group 1.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Teachers will be trained in evidence-based behaviour management strategies and we anticipate that this will lead to benefits to teacher child management practices, child behaviour, the overall quality of the classroom environment, teachers’ mental health and children’s mental health and inhibitory control and child attendance. There are minimal risks. There is a possibility that teachers may misunderstand how to use the strategies and/or implement them incorrectly; however, this will be addressed by the support and training in monthly in-class coaching sessions.

Where is the study run from?
Tropical Medicine Research Institute, University of the West Indies, Kingston (Jamaica)

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
March 2015 to June 2018

Who is funding the study?
1. Medical Research Council (UK)
2. Wellcome Trust (UK)
3. Department for International Development (UK)

Who is the main contact?
Dr Helen Baker-Hennington

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Dr Helen Baker-Henningham


Contact details

School of Psychology
Bangor University
LL57 2AS
United Kingdom

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number number

Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

The Irie Classrooms Toolbox: a cluster randomised trial of a universal violence prevention programme in Jamaican preschools.


Study hypothesis

A school-based universal violence prevention programme involving training preschool Jamaican teachers in classroom behaviour management and in how to promote children’s social and emotional competence will lead to:
1. Reductions in teachers’ use of violence against children and
2. Reductions in the level of children’s classroom aggression
We also hypothesise that the intervention will lead to increases in the level of children’s pro-social behaviour, improvements in the quality of the classroom climate, improvements in teacher and child mental health and improvements in children’s inhibitory control and school attendance.

Ethics approval

1. School of Psychology Ethics and Research Committee, Bangor University, 29/10/2014, ref: 2014-14167
2. University of the West Indies/University Hospital of the West Indies Ethics Committee, 19/01/2015, ref: ECP 50, 14/15

Study design

Two-arm, single-blind, cluster randomised controlled trial with parallel assignment

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Cluster randomised trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use contact details to request a participant information sheet


Violence, mental health, quality of preschool environment


The intervention involves training preschool teachers using ‘The Irie Classroom Toolbox’. The Toolbox consists of three modules:
1. Creating an emotional supportive classroom environment,
2. Using classroom rules and routines to prevent behaviour problems and to maximise children’s engagement in learning activities
3. Teaching social and emotional skills to children.
The training will be delivered through training workshops, monthly in-class coaching (approx. 1 hour /month in each class) over 2 school terms and weekly text messaging over a school year. Each class will be provided with a small amount of play materials (e.g. building blocks) to facilitate their use of the strategies. Teachers in control schools will receive the same educational materials at the same time as intervention schools. They will attend the routine teacher training days provided for preschool teachers but will not be trained in ‘The Irie Classrooms Toolbox’ or receive the in-class coaching and text messages.

The effect of the intervention will be evaluated at the end of the intervention period and at one-year follow-up. After the one-year follow up data has been collected, teachers in control schools will also be trained in ‘The Irie Classrooms Toolbox’ using the same training protocols as for the intervention teachers.

Intervention type



Drug names

Primary outcome measure

We have two primary outcome measures:
1. Violence against children by teachers: measured by direct observation over 2 school days in each class. Event recording will be used to record use of corporal punishment and verbal abuse (e.g. threats, name-calling) by teachers.
2. Aggression at the classroom level: measured by observer ratings of the level of children’s interpersonal aggression and destructive behaviours in 20-minute intervals over 1 school day.

Both primary outcomes will be measured at baseline, post-test and one year follow-up.

Secondary outcome measures

We have secondary outcome measures at the level of the classroom, the teacher and the child. Classroom and teacher level outcomes will be measured at baseline, post-test and one year follow-up, child level outcomes will be measured at baseline and post-test only.
1. Classroom level outcomes
1.1. Observer ratings of children’s pro-social behaviour at the classroom level and observer ratings of the quality of the classroom environment using the Classroom Assessment Scoring System – Pre-K.
2. Teacher level outcomes:
2.1. Depressive symptoms (using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale)
2.2. Teaching self-efficacy (using 3 subscales from Bandura’s Teaching Self-Efficacy Scale
2.3. Disciplinary efficacy
2.4. Enlisting parent involvement and creating a positive school climate)
2.5. Teacher burn-out (using the Teacher Burnout scale) by teacher report using interviewer administered questionnaires
3. Child level outcomes:
3.1. Child mental health using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire by teacher report
3.2. Children’s inhibitory control by direct testing and child attendance from school records

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

1. Schools: Preschools situated in specified urban areas in Kingston & St. Andrew, Jamaica (with 2-4 classrooms and an average of at least 10 children per class)
2. Teachers: All teachers in the selected preschools
3. Children: A random sample of children from the 4 year old class in the selected preschools

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants

76 preschools will be recruited with an average of 3 classrooms/schools giving a sample size of 228 teachers/classrooms. For the child level outcomes, children from the 4 year old class only will be recruited. In classes with 12 or fewer children, all children will be recruited. Where there are more than 12 children, a random sample of children will be selected.

Participant exclusion criteria

1. Preschools with less than two and more than four classrooms/teachers
2. Children with identified developmental disability or delay
3. Children with attendance less than 50%

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment


Trial participating centre

Tropical Medicine Research Institute
University of the West Indies Mona Campus

Sponsor information


University of the West Indies

Sponsor details

Mona Campus

Sponsor type




Funder type

Research council

Funder name

Medical Research Council

Alternative name(s)


Funding Body Type

government organisation

Funding Body Subtype

National government


United Kingdom

Funder name

Wellcome Trust

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

private sector organisation

Funding Body Subtype

International organizations


United Kingdom

Funder name

Department for International Development, UK Government

Alternative name(s)


Funding Body Type

government organisation

Funding Body Subtype

National government


United Kingdom

Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Intention to publish date

Participant level data

Not provided at time of registration

Basic results (scientific)

Publication list

2016 protocol in
2018 results in (added 19/11/2020)

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

19/11/2020: Publication reference added. 12/05/2016: Publication reference added.