Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
It is known that emotional intelligence plays an important role in interpersonal relationships. Emotional intelligence, which is an enhanceable skill, improves the quality of care and the efficiency of nurses during nursing care. Hence, creating difference in the nurses’ interpersonal relationship styles by means of emotional intelligence skills training while they are preparing for professional life as students is a noteworthy approach. The study investigates the impact of improving emotional intelligence skills training given to nursing students on their emotional intelligence levels and interpersonal relationship styles.
Who can participate?
Anyone volunteering to the study can participate. Female and male nursing students with age range of 18-23 participated.
What does the study involve?
The study includes emotional intelligence skills training intervention. Control and training groups were compared. After the study, the control group was also trained.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
There was no risk of being a participant. Participants' improvement of emotional intelligence skills is a possible benefit.
Where is the study run from?
The research was conducted with freshmen nursing students studying at Adnan Menderes University, Aydın School of Health.
When is study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
The study started on 24.02.2015 and consisted of 10 sessions over 10 weeks.
How long will the trial be recruiting participants for?
Recruitment has been completed.
Who is the main contact?
Orkun Erkayıran (firstname.lastname@example.org)
The impact of improving emotional intelligence skills training on nursing students’ interpersonal relationship styles: A quasi-experimental Study
Emotional intelligence skills training increases emotional intelligence scores and interpersonal relationship style scores in students
Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Medicine Non-Interventional Clinical Research Ethics Committee, 29/01/2015, 2014/520
Randomized controlled trial
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Randomised controlled trial
Patient information sheet
In the first meeting, the training group and control group were greeted and then informed about the purpose of the study. Those who filled in informed voluntary consent forms were included in the study. The training and control group students completed a personal information form, an emotional quotient inventory and an interpersonal style inventory. Following the first session, each session took approximately 60-75 minutes until the tenth session. In each session, a warm-up activity was conducted before the training. Warm-up activities were related with the training of the day and were designed in order to prepare for the training. Warm-up activities were performed by means of role-play, group work, and self-report methods, and the methods and materials varied according to the content of each warm-up activity. After the warm-up activity, basic theoretical information was presented about session topics. During the presentation, the students were told the topic of the training by means of question-answer and discussions. Following the topics, activities related with the topic to improve emotional intelligence skills were conducted. With the activity, it was aimed to practically reinforce the information provided theoretically. After each session, the session was evaluated. In the 10th session, which was the last session, a general evaluation of the training was conducted with the trainers and students. After the evaluation, the training group students were applied the emotional quotient inventory and interpersonal style inventory. The same content of training was given to the students in the control group after the training. The trainings and the inventories related to the study were conducted in the classrooms of Aydın School of Health by planning appropriate time for the students and the trainer.
Emotional Quotient Inventory: Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was developed by Bar-On (1997) in order to measure emotional intelligence dimensions, and validity and reliability analyses were performed (Bar-On, 2006, 2005). Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory was translated into Turkish language by Acar (2002), and validity and reliability analyses were performed (Acar, 2002). Of the 133 statements included in the inventory, 15 were not included in any of the dimensions but were the ones that measured the tendency of the respondent to fill in the inventory. These statements were removed from the inventory. As a result, an inventory composed of 87 statements measuring a total of 5 dimensions and 15 dimensions under them was created. In the statement numbered 88, the answers of the ones that responded the statement “I sincerely and correctly answered the statements above” except “I totally agree” were not included in the evaluation. These statements were on a 5-point Likert Scale and varied from “1- I totally agree” to “5-I totally disagree”.
In order to increase the reliability of the inventory, internal consistency among the propositions in the inventory was tested by Cronbach Alpha Coefficiency reliability analysis. Accordingly, the Cronbach Alpha coefficient of the dimensions of the 87-statement inventory was found 0.92 (Acar, 2002).
Interpersonal Style Inventory: The inventory, developed by Lorr and DeJong (1986), aims to determine the individual’s interaction style with others (Lorr and DeJong, 1986). The inventory, originally composed of 300 items, was reduced to 150 items as it took too long to respond. All the items were collected under five main factors; interpersonal interaction, socialization, autonomy, self-control and being well-balanced. It was found that reliability coefficients varied between 0.72 and 0.89; and test-retest correlation coefficients varied between 0.81 and 0.95. The inventory was adapted to Turkish by Öztan (1994) and in order to create a more useful inventory, the items with the lowest Cronbach Alpha values and the lowest total correlations in each sub-dimension were removed from the inventory and the 150-item inventory was reduced to 55 items (Öztan, 1994). Thus, a shorter inventory with high valid and reliable items was obtained. In the Turkish form of the inventory, 10 experts with at least a master degree in psychology were given the inventory with an explanation defining each of the 10 sub-dimensions (sociality, being open to help, being interested, sensitive, trusting in people, tolerant, guiding, independent, decisive and well-balanced) and they were asked to read every item carefully and decide which sub-dimension these items would be in. Consensus rates between experts were between 60% and 100%, with an average of 80%. Thus, an inventory of 55 questions was obtained in which there were 10 dimensions in total and 5 items in each dimension and 5 items in the inventory.
The Personal Information Form was prepared by the researchers based on literature (Boylan and Loughrey, 2007; Chang, 2008; Eniola and Adebiyi, 2007; Fletcher et al., 2009; Karahan and Özçelik, 2006; Mahdavi et al., 2015; Nelis et al., 2009; Ruiz-Aranda et al., 2012; Yalcin et al., 2008; Yilmaz, 2009). The form is composed of 27 close and open-ended questions investigating the students’ personal information, interpersonal relationship styles, and situations in terms of their social lives.
Primary outcome measure
Emotional intelligence and interpersonal style were measured using the Emotional Quotient Inventory and Interpersonal Style Inventory at baseline and following 10 weekly training sessions.
Secondary outcome measures
The Personal Information Form questionnaire was completed at baseline and following 10 weekly training sessions.
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
1. First-year nursing student
2. Sufficient time to participate in the study
3. Voluntary consent given
Target number of participants
Participant exclusion criteria
1. Previously taken class or course to improve emotional intelligence skills
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
Adnan Menderes University, Aydın School of Health
Investigator initiated and funded
Funding Body Type
Funding Body Subtype
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
Planned publication in a high-impact peer-reviewed journal.
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
Not provided at time of registration
Basic results (scientific)