Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
Diabetes is a life-long condition where a person is unable to control their blood sugar levels. There are type main types of diabetes. In type 1 diabetes the body is unable to produce a hormone called insulin, which is responsible for breaking down glucose and turning it into energy. In type 2 diabetes the body either does not produce enough insulin to function properly (insulin deficiency), or that the body’s cells don’t react to insulin as they should do (insulin resistance). There is a lot of evidence showing that regular exercise and a healthy diet can help control blood sugar, as well as offering other benefits such as improving cardiovascular (heart and blood vessels) health, reducing the risk of heart attack and stroke. The aim of this study is to find out whether aerobic exercise and diet on blood sugar control and cardiovascular health in male patients with type 1 or type 2 diabetes.
Who can participate?
Males with type 1 or type 2 diabetes aged nine years and over.
What does the study involve?
Participants are divided into one of two groups, based on the order that they sign up for the study. Those in the first group (who signed up first) take part in a 12 week course of exercise and dieting. The diet consists of following food recommendations for diabetic patients, namely low calorie intake and avoiding high sugar and saturated fat. The exercise involves 50-minute exercise sessions three times a week, which involves running on a treadmill. Those in the second group continue with their lives as usual for the 12 weeks of the study. At the start of the study and then again after 12 weeks, participants in both groups are weighed and have a blood test to test their blood sugar levels after they have not eaten or drunk anything for 12 hours (fasting).
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Participants may benefit from an improvement in blood sugar control and cardiovascular health. There is a risk that during exercise blood sugar could drop below healthy levels, however this is will be carefully monitored.
Where is the study run from?
1. King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals (Saudi Arabia)
2. King Fahd University Hospital (Saudi Arabia)
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
January 2013 to May 2013
Who is funding the study?
Investigator initiated and funded (Saudi Arabia)
Who is the main contact?
Dr Mohammed Hamdan Hashem Mohammed
Effect of aerobic exercise with diet on blood sugar control and cardiovascular health of male patients with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus: A parallel group randomized control trial
A 12-week aerobic exercise program combined with a diet will significantly improve the glycemic control and cardiovascular health of the patients.
Ethical Committee of the Department of Biological and Sport Health Science, Alexandria University, Egypt, 13/05/2012
Single-centre randomised controlled trial
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Randomised controlled trial
Patient information sheet
No participant information sheet available
Participants are divided into one of two groups in a 1:1 ratio. The patients who registered first are in the intervention group.
Intervention group: Participants complete a combination of 50-minute exercise sessions done three times a week for 12 weeks (17 February-8 May 2013) and diet. The patients in the control group were asked to continue with their daily activities. The exercise program involves aerobic exercises on treadmills. This involves a 5 minute warm up and cool down before and after the exercise. The exercise intensity was increased progressively: 40-60% in the first four weeks, 60-70% in the second four weeks, and 70-90% in the last four weeks. The increase depended on the ability of the patients. The diet consists of food recommendations for diabetic patients. It provides the amount of calories for the patients to reach and maintain their ideal weight. Each patient has a number of calories to consume, depending on the target weight ideal body weight they need to reach or maintain during and at the end of the program. The patients have the following caloric options: 1200, 1400, 1500 and 1800 calories. The body weight of the patients is measured weekly in order to determine if the patients followed the diet program. Each patient is expected to attain a weekly target body weight if they followed the diet recommendations. The patients are advised to avoid foods with high sugar and saturated fat content.
Control group: Participants continue with their daily activities alone.
Participants are followed up at 12 weeks to have their glycemic control and cardiovascular health assessed.
Primary outcome measure
Glycemic control is assessed by measuring HbA1c and fasting blood glucose after a 12-hour fast using Dimension® RxL Max® at baseline and 12 weeks
Secondary outcome measures
1. Cardiovascular health is assessed at baseline and 12 weeks:
1.1. Resting heart rate is measured manually at the radial artery (number of beats in 15 seconds was multiplied by four)
1.2. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures are measured using a sphygmomanometer
1.3. Blood lipid profile is measured after a 12-hour fast using Dimension® RxL Max®
2. Body mass is measured using a weighing scale at baseline and 12 weeks
3. Body mass index is calculated using the formula mass/height2 at baseline and 1 weeks
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
1. Males, aged 9 years and over
2. Diagnosis of type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus for more than one year
3. Absence of chronic diseases such as retinopathy, neuropathy, asthma, arthritis, morbid obesity and cardiovascular disease
4. Able to attend study centre
Target number of participants
Participant exclusion criteria
1. Aged under 9 years
2. Diabetes diagnosis for less than one year
3. Chronic diseases such as retinopathy, neuropathy, asthma, arthritis, morbid obesity and cardiovascular disease.
4. Those unable to attend the study centre
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals
Trial participating centre
King Fahd University Hospital
Bashar Ibn Burd St
Investigator initiated and funded
Funding Body Type
Funding Body Subtype
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
Planned publication in refereed journals.
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
Available on request
Basic results (scientific)