Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a growing problem worldwide. People with T2DM have difficulty controlling their blood sugar (glucose) as they do not produce enough insulin to function properly (insulin deficiency), or that the body’s cells don’t react to insulin as they should do (insulin resistance). An important part of diabetes management maintaining a healthy lifestyle, namely eating well, exercising and taking medication properly. Transtheoretical Model (TTM)–based motivational interviewing is a technique used to change behaviour. It works by progressing gradually through a series of stages so that the patient is able to move from being uninterested or unwilling to change to considering to change and deciding and preparing to make a change. The aim of this study is to find out whether the TTM-based motivational interview method is an effective way of improving self-efficacy, metabolic control, and health behaviour in adults with T2DM.
Who can participate?
Men and women aged between 20 and 65 with type 2 diabetes
What does the study involve?
Participants are randomly allocated to one of two groups. Participants in the first group take part in the TTM-based motivational interview every 15 days or every month (depending on the needs of the individual) for six months. Through these sessions, the interviews focus on blood sugar monitoring, eating well and exercising, and taking medication properly. Participants in the second group continue to receive usual care alone for six months. At the start of the study and again after six months, participants in both groups complete a number of questionnaires in order to assess their lifestyle and self-efficiency, as well as having their blood sugar and weight measured.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Participants may benefit from being able to change their behaviour, which could have a positive impact on how well they are able to control their blood sugar. There are no notable risks involved with taking part in this study.
Where is the study run from?
Erciyes University Hospital (Turkey)
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
January 2013 to May 2013
Who is funding the study?
Erciyes University (Turkey)
Who is the main contact?
Dr Alime Selçuk-Tosun
Dr Alime Selçuk-Tosun
Faculty of Health Sicence
+90 538 471 5941
Project No: TDK-2013-4699
The effect of transtheoretical model–based motivational interview on self-efficacy, metabolic control, and health behavior in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus: A randomised control study
1. The self-efficacy scores of participants in the intervention and control groups do or do not differ statistically at follow-up
2. The metabolic scores of participants in the intervention and control groups do or do not differ statistically at follow-up
3. The exercise behavior change stages of participants in the intervention and control groups do or do not differ statistically at follow-up
4. The nutrition behavior change stages of participants in the intervention and control groups do or do not differ statistically at follow-up
5. The medication use behavior change stages of participants in the intervention and control groups do or do not differ statistically at follow-up
Ethics Committee of University Clinical Studies (EUCS), 08/01/2013, ref: 2013/14
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Randomised controlled trial
Patient information sheet
Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus
Participants are randomly allocated to one of two groups.
Intervention group: Participants undergo a 30 to 45 minute TTM-based motivational interview every 15 days or monthly, depending on the participant's individual needs. Motivational interview methods such as expressing empathy, developing discrepancy, rolling with resistance, supporting self-efficacy, avoiding giving advice, providing simple decisional balance, using an importance-confidence scale, using open-ended questions, reflecting, and summarizing are used. Three forms are used in the motivational interviews, namely a blood glucose follow-up table, a medication use and walking form, and a food intake record form, which are used to ensure monitoring of blood glucose levels, medication use, and proper nutrition on a regular basis and to help participants exercise regularly.
Control group: Participants receive no TTM-based motivational interview and continue to receive usual care in the polyclinic.
Participants in both groups are followed up after six months.
Primary outcome measure
Self-efficiency is measured using the Self-Efficacy Scale at baseline and six months.
Secondary outcome measures
1. Metabolic values (glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, body mass index, and waist circumference) is measured taking intravenous blood in the laboratory at baseline and six months
2. Number of steps is measured using a pedometer at baseline and six months
3. Behavior change stage of nutrition, exercise, and medication use is measured using Diagnosis Form for Behavioral Change Stage in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus at baseline and six months
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
1. Type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis for 6 months or longer with hypertension or dyslipidemia
2. Aged between 20 and 65 years
3. Primary school graduates
4. Body mass index (BMI) of 25 kg/m2 or more (overweight or obese)
5. Glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) level of 7% or more
6. Using oral diabetic medication or insulin or both
Target number of participants
Participant exclusion criteria
1. Medical problems that hinder exercise
2. Serious peripheral or autonomic neuropathy
3. Severe retinopathy
4. Psychiatric disorders
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
Erciyes University Hospital
Endocrinology and metabolism polyclinic Feyzioğlu Street No. 42
The Scientific Research Project Coordination Department
Erciyes University (Erciyes Üniversitesi)
Funding Body Type
private sector organisation
Funding Body Subtype
Universities (academic only)
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
Planned publication in a peer reviewed journal.
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
Not expected to be available
Basic results (scientific)