Condition category
Not Applicable
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting
Publication status

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
Anti-microbial resistance has reached alarming levels and considered to be a worldwide public health problem. One of the main significant contributing factors of AMR is the lack of sufficient knowledge of using antibiotics. Antibiotics are being used frequently in dentistry. Recent studies found games (such as board game) to have a promising way to improve knowledge in health and can be used to improve knowledge about anti-microbial resistance among people. This study tries to assess the effect of using a board game on anti-microbial resistance knowledge among the public in Saudi Arabia.

Who can participate?
In this study, female volunteers member from the department of Friends Association Charitable Society (FACS) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia, who speak Arabic, older than 18 years old, and agree to participate in the study and answer all the questionnaires

What does the study involve?
The intervention will test the board game and its effect on people’s knowledge of antimicrobial resistance. Volunteers were involved and were divided into two groups in a random way. The first group received information about AMR by playing a board game, while the second group received the same information given in a conventional lecture. The participants were evaluated three times: before the playing/ getting the lecture, immediately after that, and after one month.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
A participant went to random prize draw to (50 Saudi Riyal) from a famous book store. No risks.

Where is the study run from?
Friends Association Charitable Society (FACS) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
February 219 to April 2019

Who is funding the study?
Investigator initiated and funded

Who is the main contact?
Dr Khalid Aboalshamat

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Dr Khalid Aboalshamat


Contact details

Umm Al-Qura University
Saudi Arabia
+966 (0)543536468

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number

Nil known number

Nil known

Protocol/serial number

UQUDENT 120-19

Study information

Scientific title

The effect of gamification on antimicrobial resistance knowledge and its relation to dentistry in Saudi Arabia: RCT


Study hypothesis

What is the effect of gamification as health promotion method on awareness level and information retention of anti-microbial resistance and its relation to dentistry in compared to conventional educational lecture method?

Ethics approval

Approved 20/01/2019, Umm Al-qura University, Faculty of dentistry IRB (Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, 24352, Saudi Arabia; +966125270000;, ref: 120-19

Study design

Randomized controlled trial single blind with active control group

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Randomised controlled trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

See additional files


Knowledge of antimicrobial resistance


Intervention group:
Participants in the study played (The Chancellor) board game, which is a custom-made educational board game. The game went to three rounds of pilot to tests until the final version to be used in the study. The game is between two players who try to finish ten steps in the gameboard before the opponent. The game composed of one board game, two piles of flashcards, two different pawns for each player, and a dice to decide who play first. At each turn, a player tries to move one step forward and the opponent tries to stop her to move by drawing a flashcard that contains a question about AMR, extra information about AMR, and/or funny challenge. The funny challenge is a request to do a specific task in each card such as saying the same information about AMR in a different accent or saying the information while the player holding his nose. If the player wins the challenge, she can move forward, otherwise, she stays at her place waiting for another turn. Each game takes around 20-30 minutes. Participants played the games in multiple sets of two players at the same time. For more detail about the game, you can contact the study authors. During the intervention, the game was supervised by the research team to explain and facilitate playing.

Control group:
The control group received a lecture titled “Antimicrobial resistance”. Composed of powerpoint presentation delivered by one of the research team in the Arabic Language. The content was the same as the intervention. The lecture was given in 20 minutes.

Randomization was conducted using simple randomization process of previously shuffled sealed envelopes by equal allocation ratio, using pieces of paper in a bowl, so each participant picked a piece randomly so she could be allocated with 50% chance into two comparative groups. To fulfil concealment of allocation, the sealed envelopes were opaque and numbered sequentially. This resulted in allocating participants into SG and CG. the To ensure blindness, the participants informed that the study aimed to compare between two methods of delivery to improve AMR knowledge. None of the participants was aware that gamification was the main aim of the study. Thus, the study was single-blind.

Intervention type



Drug names

Primary outcome measure

Total knowledge score of antimicrobial resistance at baseline, post-intervention, and one month

Secondary outcome measures

Participants opinion about the gamification as a method to improve awareness measured using a bespoke questionnaire after participation

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

1. Arabic speakers
2. Older than 18 years
3. Agree to participant in the intervention and answer all the questionnaires. All participants who did not agree to sign the consent form were excluded from the study

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Total final enrolment


Participant exclusion criteria

Does not meet and fulfill inclusion criteria, or did not sign the study conset form.

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment

Saudi Arabia

Trial participating centre

Friends Association Charitable Society (FACS) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia
Saudi Arabia

Sponsor information


Umm Al-Qura University

Sponsor details

Al Abdeyah
Saudi Arabia

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

investigator initiated and funded

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Planned publication in a high-impact peer-reviewed journal.

The protocol has been uploaded as an additional file (not peer reviewed).

IPD sharing statement:
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
Dr. Khalid Aboalshamat, Umm Al-Qura University, Faculty of Dentistry, Saudi Arabia.
SPSS file (unidentified)
The data will be available upon request for two years.
Data can be accessed by the journal to which we will submit our article, any Saudi Governmental authority, researchers after careful consideration of their scientific intention to use.
All data are anonymous with no identification

Intention to publish date


Participant level data

Not expected to be available

Basic results (scientific)

Publication list

2020 results in (added 15/05/2020)

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

15/05/2020: Publication reference and total final enrolment number added. 08/11/2019: The participant information sheet has been uploaded. Uploaded protocol 29 October 2019 (not peer reviewed). 29/10/2019: Trial’s existence confirmed by Umm Al-qura University, Faculty of dentistry IRB