Condition category
Nutritional, Metabolic, Endocrine
Date applied
26/08/2015
Date assigned
27/08/2015
Last edited
25/02/2016
Prospective/Retrospective
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Completed
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
There are many benefits of taking part in physical activity for the body, but there is a good deal of evidence that it is also beneficial for the brain. Studies have shown that children who are physically active tend to perform better in the classroom at academic tasks, such as math and spelling. There have been a number of studies which have shown that physical activity can have a positive effect on academic performance in lessons afterwards. The combination of physical activity and academic learning in the classroom, however, may be an innovative way of improving academic results. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of a physically active academic intervention on academic achievement, academic engagement (how well they are engaging with what they are learning), executive functioning (the ability to analyse, plan, organise, adjust and complete tasks) and the physical fitness of children.

Who can participate?
Children from second and third grades of mainstream elementary schools in the Northern Netherlands.

What does the study involve?
At each school a second and third grade class are randomly assigned to the intervention or the control group. Children in the intervention group participate in physically active academic lessons in the class room 3 times per week, 22 weeks per year, for a period of two years. The control group participates in regular classroom lessons only for the duration of the study. The children’s academic achievement, executive functioning and physical fitness is measured before the intervention starts, after the first and second intervention year and 7-9 months after the intervention ends. Children's time-on-task (time focusing on a specific task) is measured during the first intervention year.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Participants could potentially benefit from an improvement of academic achievement, physical fitness, executive functioning and academic engagement by participation in the physical active academic lessons. There are no significant risks of participating, although there is a possibility of muscle pain in relation to the physical activity.

Where is the study run from?
1. Public Education Group Groningen (Netherlands)
2. Christian Education Association Groningen (Netherlands)
3. Catholic Education Central (Netherlands)
4. Association of Christian education East (Netherlands)
5. Municipality Hoogezand (Netherlands)

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
January 2011 to July 2015

Who is funding the study?
Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Netherlands)

Who is the main contact?
Mrs Marijke Mullender-Wijnsma

Trial website

Contact information

Type

Public

Primary contact

Mrs Marijke Mullender-Wijnsma

ORCID ID

Contact details

Antonius Deusinglaan 1
Groningen
9713 AV
Netherlands

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number

ClinicalTrials.gov number

Protocol/serial number

ODB10015

Study information

Scientific title

Effect of physical active math and language lessons (Fit & Vaardig op school) on the academic achievement of 7-10 year old (socially disadvantaged) children

Acronym

F&V

Study hypothesis

Primary:
The F&V intervention improves the academic achievement of (socially disadvantaged) children

Secondary:
1. The F&V intervention improves the academic engagement of elementary school children
2. The F&V intervention improves the executive functioning of elementary school children
3. The F&V intervention improves the physical fitness of elementary school children

Ethics approval

Ethical Committee of the Center for Human Movement Sciences of the University Medical Center Groningen/University of Groningen, 30/05/2012, ECB/15052012/4

Study design

Multi-centre cluster randomized controlled trial.

Primary study design

Interventional

Secondary study design

Cluster randomised trial

Trial setting

Schools

Trial type

Quality of life

Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet

Condition

Academic achievement gap, physical inactivity and obesity

Intervention

Intervention group:
Physical active academic lessons in the classroom. The intervention lessons were taught in the classroom during two school years, 22 weeks per year, three times a week for 20-30 minutes In each lesson, 10-15 minutes are spent on math activities and 10-15 minutes on language activities. Each lesson is supported by a presentation on the interactive whiteboard. The physical exercises are aimed at moderate to vigorous intensity. For example, the children jump on the spot eight times to solve the multiplication sum “2x4”.

Control group:
Regular sedentary classroom lessons.

Intervention type

Behavioural

Phase

Drug names

Primary outcome measures

Academic achievement is measured by the Speed-Test-Arithmetic, the One-Minute-Test (reading), and the spelling and math tests from a child academic monitoring system (CAMS) before the start of the intervention (T0), after the first intervention year (eight months to one year after T0; T1) after the second intervention year (one year after T1; T2), and 7-9 months after the intervention (T3).

Secondary outcome measures

1. Physical fitness is measured using the EUROFIT physical fitness test battery before the start of the intervention (T0), after the first intervention year (eight months to one year after T0; T1) after the second intervention year (one year after T1; T2), and 7-9 months after the intervention (T3).
2. Executive functioning is measured using the Stroop test, Digit and Visual memory span (part of Wechsler Memory Scale Revised), and M-WCST before the start of the intervention (T0), after the first intervention year (eight months to one year after T0; T1) after the second intervention year (one year after T1; T2), and 7-9 months after the intervention (T3).
3. Academic engagement is measured by time-on-task observations in the classroom, during the first intervention year.

Overall trial start date

01/01/2011

Overall trial end date

01/07/2015

Reason abandoned

Eligibility

Participant inclusion criteria

1. Children from second and third grades of mainstream elementary schools
2. Informed consent from the school principals

Participant type

Other

Age group

Child

Gender

Both

Target number of participants

600

Participant exclusion criteria

Special schools (schools catering for children who have special educational needs due to learning difficulties, physical disabilities or behavioural problems).

Recruitment start date

01/01/2011

Recruitment end date

01/07/2012

Locations

Countries of recruitment

Netherlands

Trial participating centre

Public Education Group Groningen (Openbaar Onderwijs Groep Groningen)
Leonard Springerlaan 39
Groningen
9727 KB
Netherlands

Trial participating centre

Christian Education Association Groningen (Vereniging Christelijk Onderwijs Groningen)
Eenrumermaar 4
Groningen
9735 AD
Netherlands

Trial participating centre

Catholic Education Central (Katholieke Onderwijs Centrale)
Groningen
9701 BL
Netherlands

Trial participating centre

Association of Christian education East-Groningen (Vereniging christelijk onderwijs Oost-Groningen)
Scholtenswijk 10
Groningen
9665 KN
Netherlands

Trial participating centre

Municipality Hoogezand (Gemeente Hoogezand)
Gorecht-Oost 157
Hoogezand
9600 AB
Netherlands

Sponsor information

Organisation

University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Center for Human Movement Sciences (Netherlands)

Sponsor details

Antonius Deusinglaan 1
Groningen
9713 AV
Netherlands

Sponsor type

University/education

Website

Organisation

University of Groningen, Groningen Institute for Educational Research (Netherlands)

Sponsor details

Grote Rozenstraat 3
Groningen
9712 TG
Netherlands

Sponsor type

University/education

Website

Funders

Funder type

Government

Funder name

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science (Ministerie van Onderwijs, Cultuur en Wetenschap)

Alternative name(s)

Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, Netherlands, OCW

Funding Body Type

government organisation

Funding Body Subtype

Federal/National Government

Location

Netherlands

Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

We already published 2 articles that included study results.
We intend to publish 4 more articles of our study results as soon as possible (2 before the end of 2015 and 2 in 2016).

Intention to publish date

31/12/2015

Participant level data

Not expected to be available

Results - basic reporting

Publication summary

2014 results in: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25092881
2015 results in: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25927371
2016 results in: http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/early/2016/02/22/peds.2015-2743

Publication citations

  1. Results

    de Greeff, J. W., Hartman, E., Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J., Bosker, R. J., Doolaard, S., & Visscher, C. , Physical fitness and academic performance in primary school children with and without a social disadvantage., Health Education Research, 2014, 29, 5, doi: 10.1093/her/cyu043.

  2. Results

    Mullender-Wijnsma, M. J., Hartman, E., de Greeff, J. W., Bosker, R. J., Doolaard, S., & Visscher, C, Moderate-to-vigorous physically active academic lessons and academic engagement in children with and without a social disadvantage: a within subject experimental design, BMC Public Health, 2015, 15, doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-1745-y.

  3. Results

    MJ Mullender-Wijnsma, E Hartman, JW de Greeff, S Doolaard, RJ Bosker, C Visscher, Physically Active Math and Language Lessons Improve Academic Achievement: A Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial, Pediatrics, 2016, doi: 10.1542/peds.2015-2743 .

Additional files

Editorial Notes

25/02/2016: Publication reference added.