Condition category
Mental and Behavioural Disorders
Date applied
10/11/2015
Date assigned
24/11/2015
Last edited
11/05/2016
Prospective/Retrospective
Prospectively registered
Overall trial status
Ongoing
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
This study has a number of aims. First it is examining the feasibility of recruiting and training teachers in a mindfulness curriculum. For example it is considering questions such as how many teachers/schools need to be contacted to achieve a given number of teachers consenting to participate in a study of teacher training, and how many of those teachers who consent end up completing training and going on to deliver the curriculum in their school? Understanding these feasibility issues is important in planning for a future study that will involve training teachers to deliver a mindfulness curriculum prior to examining the impact of this curriculum on young people. The study is also exploring how best to train secondary school teachers to teach a mindfulness curriculum to their pupils. To do so the study will compare four different training routes. We will compare the training routes in terms of the levels of competency teachers achieve and their associated costs (both in terms of financial cost and time). An additional aim is to examine the impact of personal mindfulness training on teacher wellbeing, in particular levels of perceived stress and wellbeing. The study will compare the impact of face-to-face and self-help personal mindfulness training on these measures.

Who can participate?
Teachers currently teaching in a mainstream secondary school in England.

What does the study involve?
At the start of the study, participating teachers are asked to complete online questionnaires. Participating schools are randomly assigned to one of four training routes. The first training route is the one that teachers currently follow if they want to train to teach mindfulness to their pupils. In this training route teachers first complete an 8-week face-to-face personal mindfulness training and then follow a four-day syllabus training. This training route is quite time consuming and expensive and we do not know the levels of competency achieved by teachers following this training route. Therefore this study compares this training route with three alternative, lower intensity training routes. These routes comprise: face-to-face personal mindfulness training combined with a briefer, one-day syllabus training; self-help personal mindfulness training combined with 4-day syllabus training; and lastly self-help mindfulness training combined with 1-day syllabus training (the lowest intensity training route). Teachers are told what training they will receive and are provided with the materials they need, including, if relevant, access to a class and mindfulness instructor. Usually face-to-face mindfulness training takes place in the teachers’ school or in some cases at a nearby school. Once teachers have completed their personal mindfulness training they are asked to complete an online assessment. Following this assessment they are informed of the syllabus training they will receive (either 1 day or 4 day training) and go on to receive this training. Following completion of syllabus training teachers complete a final online assessment. They then return to their schools and plan to deliver the curriculum. They video record all their classes and submit these for assessment of teaching competency.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
All participating teachers will benefit from receiving free high quality training in personal mindfulness and in the delivery of the .b mindfulness in schools curriculum. Schools will benefit because training is provided free of charge and money is available to pay for supply cover whilst teachers are out of school receiving training, so they will improve the training of members of their workforce at no cost. All participating teachers receive a £100 book voucher on submission of their training videos. Additionally each participating school will receive a £250 voucher at the end of the study. There are no known risks of taking part in the study. However, the training does involve a significant time commitment as teachers are asked to practice mindfulness exercises 6 days a week and also to engage in other course-related activities. Finally teachers are required to complete questionnaires on four occasions during the study and then to video themselves teaching the .b curriculum.

Where is the study run from?
The study is run from University of Oxford (UK) and takes place in a number of schools based in Oxford (UK)

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
June 2015 to March 2018

Who is funding the study?
Wellcome Trust (UK) (Grant reference: 104908/Z/14/z)

Who is the main contact?
Dr Catherine Crane

Trial website

Contact information

Type

Scientific

Primary contact

Dr Catherine Crane

ORCID ID

Contact details

Oxford Mindfulness Centre
Department of Psychiatry
Warneford Hospital
Warneford Lane
Oxford
OX3 7JX
United Kingdom

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number

ClinicalTrials.gov number

Protocol/serial number

N/A

Study information

Scientific title

Evaluating how best to train classroom teachers to deliver mindfulness training competently in school settings: a cluster-randomised feasibility study

Acronym

MYRIAD Theme 2 Teacher Training

Study hypothesis

The aim of this study is to establish the feasibility of recruiting schools and teachers and training these teachers to deliver a mindfulness curriculum to their pupils over a 12-month time frame.

Secondary aims:
1. An exploratory comparison of self-help and face-to-face mindfulness training in improving teacher wellbeing and reducing teacher stress
2. A comparison of the relative proportion of teachers achieving competency across the four training routes and the cost effectiveness (time and financial costs) of these four routes (cost per competent teacher completing each)

Ethics approval

University of Oxford Medical Sciences Interdivisional Research Ethics Committee, 20/03/2015, ref: MS-IDREC-C1-2015-048 (most recent amendment dated 20/11/2015)

Study design

Cluster-randomised feasibility study

Primary study design

Interventional

Secondary study design

Cluster randomised trial

Trial setting

Schools

Trial type

Other

Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet

Condition

This is a study examining teaching competency in teachers allocated to different training programmes

Intervention

Experimental design with schools (clusters of teachers) randomly allocated to one of four teacher training routes of increasing intensity/duration.

Schools will be randomised to one of four training routes:

Route 1: Teachers receive an 8-week instructor-led personal mindfulness course followed by a 4 day syllabus training course
Route 2: Teachers receive an 8-week self-help mindfulness course followed by a 4 day syllabus training course
Route 3: Teachers receive an 8-week instructor-led personal mindfulness course followed by a 1 day syllabus training course
Route 4: Teachers receive an 8-week self-help mindfulness course followed by a 1 day syllabus training


The instructor-led personal mindfulness course is delivered over eight 90 minute sessions, occurring approximately once per week (there may be a 1-2 week break if the course is scheduled to run over a school holiday period). Participants will follow a course based on Mindfulness: Finding Peace in a Frantic World, and will have an opportunity to be guided in the practice of mindfulness together, will be engaged in brief enquiry about their experiences of mindfulness practice and will receive brief summary handouts. The course will be delivered by experienced mindfulness instructors who meet good practice guidelines for teachers of mindfulness-based interventions (http://mindfulnessteachersuk.org.uk/#guidelines),

In the self-help mindfulness course participants will be provided with a copy of the Mindfulness: Finding Peace in a Frantic World course book by Penman and Williams and will be invited to follow the course and associated meditation practices outlined in the book over an 8 week period (again, there may be a suggestion of a 1-2 week break if the course is scheduled to run over a school holiday period). Participants will be left free to follow the course as best suits them.

In the second phase participants will receive training in delivery of the .b Mindfulness in Schools curriculum, through either a 4-day or 1-day training course. Each training course will be offered at approximately 2-3 locations depending on the location of recruited schools. Teachers will be drawn from across schools in the relevant areas. The curriculum content will be determined by the Mindfulness in Schools Project and will be based on their standard training packages, with content documented for the purposes of the study.

Intervention type

Behavioural

Phase

Drug names

Primary outcome measures

1. Perceived stress is measured using the Perceived Stress Scale at baseline, immediately pre-training phase 1, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
2. Wellbeing is measured using the Warwick Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale at baseline, immediately pre-training phase 1, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
3. Teaching competency is assessed by the Mindfulness Based Interventions Teacher Assessment of Competency (MBI-TAC) teacher version at the end of course delivery (12 month follow-up) and accompanied by information on the classroom context in which the training was delivered (to be developed)

Secondary outcome measures

As of 11/05/2016, the teacher context section of the secondary outcome measures has been updated to the following (all other secondary outcome measures remain the same):
1. Teacher involvement in contemplative practices is measured using the Contemplative Practices (CONTPRAC) at baseline
2. Teachers’ trust in their Headteacher is measured using the Head-teacher Trust Scale (PTRUST) at baseline
4. Teachers’ trust in their colleagues is measured using the Teacher Trust Scale (TTRUST) at baseline
5. Teachers’ perceptions of intervention credibility will be assessed in week 2 of phase 1 personal mindfulness training and post phase 1 personal mindfulness training (approximately 5 month follow-up), using a 5 item measure of intervention credibility modified from: Bluth, K., Campo, R. A., Pruteanu-Malinici, S., Reams, A., Mullarkey, M., & Broderick, P. C. (2015)
6. Teacher’s adherence to mindfulness training course and experience of the course, including negative experiences, assessed post phase 1 personal mindfulness training (approximately 5 month follow-up)
7. Teacher confidence to deliver .b curriculum is assessed post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up) using a measure to be developed

As of 02/02/2016, the secondary outcome measures have been updated to the following:
1. Depressive Symptoms are measured using the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
2. Anxiety is measured using the Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
3. Emotion regulation skills are measured using the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ) at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
4. Distress tolerance is measured using the Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS) at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
5. Stressful Life Events are measured using a three item measure at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
6. Dispositional Mindfulness is measured by the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, Short-Form at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
7. Self-compassion is measured by the Self Compassion Scale, Short-Form, at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
8. Interpersonal Mindfulness in Teaching is measured by the Interpersonal Mindfulness in Teaching Scale at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)

Teacher burnout
1. Time Pressure is measured using the Time Urgency Scale (TUS) at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
2. Self-Efficacy is measured using the Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES) at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
3. Burnout is measured using the Maslach Burnout Inventory Educator Survey at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)

Physical symptoms
1 Physical symptoms are measured using the Daily Physical Symptoms measure at baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)
2. Sleep Quality is measured using the PROMIS Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire baseline, post training phase 1 (approximately 5 month follow-up) and post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up)

Teaching context
1. Teacher involvement in contemplative practices is measured using the Contemplative Practices (CONTPRAC) at baseline
2. Teachers’ trust in their Headteacher is measured using the Head-teacher Trust Scale (PTRUST) at baseline
4. Teachers’ trust in their colleagues is measured using the Teacher Trust Scale (TTRUST) at baseline
5. Teachers’ perceptions of intervention credibility will be assessed in week 2 of phase 1 personal mindfulness training using three items adapted from a previous trial
6. Teacher confidence to deliver .b curriculum is assessed post training phase 2 (approximately 7 month follow-up) using a measure to be developed.


Original secondary outcome measures:
A range of secondary outcome measures will be assessed although final selection will be dependent on piloting online measures, which has not yet commenced. The majority will be assessed at baseline (T0), immediately following personal mindfulness training (T1), and immediately following syllabus training (T2). The exceptions are the teacher context variables that will be assessed only at baseline and the teacher video rating of competency (T3) that will be submitted after the teacher has delivered their mindfulness training in their school.

Measures
1. Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9)
2. Generalised Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7)
3. Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ)
4. Distress Tolerance Scale (DTS)
5. Stressful Life Events

Teacher burnout
1. Time Urgency Scale (TUS)
2. Teacher Sense of Efficacy Scale (TSES)
3. Maslach Burnout Inventory

Physical symptoms
1. Daily Physical Symptoms
2. PROMIS Sleep Disturbance Questionnaire

Teaching context
1. School Support Activities (SUPACT)
2. Contemplative Practices (CONTPRAC)
3. Professional Development (PD)
4. Head-teacher Trust Scale (PTRUST)
5. Teacher Trust Scale (TTRUST)
6. Teacher confidence to deliver .b curriculum (assessed T3 only)

Video assessment of teaching competency and contextual data (class/year group etc)

Overall trial start date

01/06/2015

Overall trial end date

30/03/2018

Reason abandoned

Eligibility

Participant inclusion criteria

School inclusion criteria:
1. English mainstream secondary school
2. School willing to release teachers for training
3. School willing to timetable teachers to deliver the course
4. School willing to offer space for instructor-led frantic world course if randomised

Teacher inclusion criteria:
1. Participant is willing and able to give informed consent for participation in the study
2. Currently teaching in a mainstream secondary school in England
3. Teacher has QTS or at least 5 years teaching experience

Participant type

Healthy volunteer

Age group

Adult

Gender

Both

Target number of participants

200 across approximately 40 schools

Participant exclusion criteria

School exclusion criteria:
1. School currently in special measures
2. School does not currently have a substantive head teacher
3. School has delivered .b curriculum to pupils age 11-16 as part of their general curriculum in last 12 months (i.e. not only to specific groups of children based on need)
4. If at the point of randomisation the school has too few participant teachers and is too geographically remote from other participating schools to make delivery of face-to-face frantic world teaching possible

Teacher exclusion criteria:
1. Teacher does not have QTS or at least 5 years teaching experience
2. Teacher is planning to leave teaching profession within the next 12-18 months
3. Teacher is on a temporary contract which does not extend to duration of study and where renewal is uncertain
4. Teacher will be unable to deliver the MT curriculum to pupils within the timeframe of the study
5. Teacher has already received .b syllabus delivery training or formal training in the delivery of another mindfulness-based intervention
6. Teacher has completed a mindfulness-based intervention in the past 12 months

Recruitment start date

12/12/2015

Recruitment end date

07/02/2016

Locations

Countries of recruitment

United Kingdom

Trial participating centre

University of Oxford
Oxford Mindfulness Centre Department of Psychiatry Warneford Hospital Warneford Lane Headington
Oxford
OX3 7JX
United Kingdom

Sponsor information

Organisation

University of Oxford (UK)

Sponsor details

Clinical Trials and Research Governance
Joint Research Office
Block 60
Churchill Hospital
Old Road
Headington
Oxford
OX3 7LE
United Kingdom

Sponsor type

University/education

Website

Funders

Funder type

Charity

Funder name

Wellcome Trust

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

private sector organisation

Funding Body Subtype

international

Location

United Kingdom

Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

1. Main outcome data from phase 1 will be available in later 2016 and from phase 2 and with respect to teacher competency in 2017.
2. Data will be analysed and the results of the study will be written up as soon as possible thereafter, with the intention of publishing the outcomes in high quality peer reviewed journals in line with the MYRIAD dissemination policy.

Intention to publish date

31/12/2018

Participant level data

Stored in repository

Results - basic reporting

Publication summary

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

11/05/2016: The teacher context secondary outcome measures have been updated. 15/02/2016: An additional exclusion criteria for the schools participating has been added (point 4). 02/02/2016: The timepoints for the primary and secondary outcome measures have now been added, as well as an updated list of secondary outcome measures. In addition, the recruitment start date has been updated from 01/09/2015 to 12/12/2015, and the end date from 15/01/2016 to 07/02/2016.