Condition category
Mental and Behavioural Disorders
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
This study aims to find out about the effectiveness of an intervention run by Catch 22. The intervention targets young people who are deemed to be most at risk of exclusion from school by their teachers. Previous research shows that being excluded from school is associated with unemployment, criminal behaviour and self-harm. The intervention aims to target these ‘at risk’ young people and improve their communication skills and lessen behaviours which may lead to school exclusions.

Who can participate?
Children had to be entering year 9 or 10 in September 2013 to be eligible and be in the top 3-5% of ‘problematic behaviour’ in their year group.

What does the study involve?
Participating schools are randomly allocated to one of two groups: the intervention or the control group. The intervention is run from the participants’ schools over 12 weeks. It consists of group work sessions run by trained ‘keyworkers’ and one-to-one sessions. On occasion there may be family support work run from the participant’s home if deemed beneficial and necessary. Participants in the control group will benefit from a one-day employability workshop run by corporate volunteers giving an insight into the world of work.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
It is hoped that participants will benefit from the intervention by developing better skills, engaging in fewer antisocial behaviours, being more engaged in school and lessening their chances of becoming NEET (Not in Education Employment or Training).

Where is the study run from?
The study is run from 17 schools across Greater London, UK

When is study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
The study started in May 2013 and is expected to run for two years

Who is funding the study?
The study is funded by the European Commission/Greater London Authority (UK) and the Education Endowment Foundation (UK)

Who is the main contact?
1. Prof. Manuel Eisner (
2. Dr Ingrid Obsuth (

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Prof Manuel Eisner


Contact details

Institute of Criminology
University of Cambridge
Sidgwick Site
United Kingdom

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number number

Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

London Education and Inclusion Project (LEIP): a cluster-randomised controlled trial of an intervention to reduce antisocial behaviour and improve educational/occupational attainment for pupils at risk of school exclusion



Study hypothesis

Research Questions
Does this intervention affect the:
1. Behaviour of participants in terms of officially recorded truancy, temporary and/or permanent exclusions?
2. Self-, teacher-reported or officially recorded disruptive and antisocial behaviour of participants?
3. Educational attainment of participants in terms of GCSE or other formal tests (e.g. SATs)?
4. Language skills of participants in terms of their expressive and/or receptive communication skills?
5. Likelihood of being Not in Education Employment or Training (NEET) once the children complete compulsory schooling?

Ethics approval

Ethics Committee of the Institute of Criminology at the University of Cambridge

Study design

Cluster randomised controlled trial

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Cluster randomised trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet


Behaviour problems which place them at the highest-risk for school exclusion and decreased educational attainment


The participating schools are randomised to two groups:

1. Intervention
The intervention provided by Catch 22 is delivered in three main components: group work sessions, one-to-one meetings and family support. It targets a number of individual risk factors including students’ poor communication skills (e.g. ineffective strategies to request attention, difficulties sharing emotions, avoidance of eye contact for social interactions), hidden communication needs (e.g. receptive-expressive language difficulties), behavioural problems in school (e.g. disruptive behaviour in the classrooms, violence), academic problems, poor attainment and attendance below the expected level. At the family level, the intervention targets risk factors such as poor family support for academic activities whereas at the school level, the intervention is focused on risk factors such as poor classroom management.

2. Control
Schools in the control group are offered a one-off workshop delivered by trained corporate volunteers. These workshop sessions address employability skills of young people, provide insight into the world of work and facilitate discussions concerning employment.

Intervention type



Drug names

Primary outcome measures

Behaviour problems - antisocial behaviour. This will be measured via self-reported questionnaires, teacher-reported questionnaires as well as official data with respect to educational outcomes. They are collected at baseline and 1-3 months following the intervention.

Secondary outcome measures

Educational and occupational attainment. This will be measured via self-reported questionnaires, teacher-reported questionnaires as well as official data with respect to educational outcomes. They are collected at baseline and 1-3 months following the intervention.

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned


Participant inclusion criteria

School level:
More than or equal to 28% of children eligible for free school meals

Young people:
1. Entering Year 9 or 10 in September 2013
2. Identified by the school as at high risk for school exclusion and/or becoming NEET based on:
2.1. having had previous school exclusions,
2.2. unauthorised absences, and
2.3. having engaged in behaviours that lead to other disciplinary measures

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Participant exclusion criteria

School level:
1. Pupil Referral Units and 'special' schools
2. Schools already participating in initiatives funded by the European Social Fund (ESF) and the Greater London Authority (GLA)

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment

United Kingdom

Trial participating centre

University of Cambridge
United Kingdom

Sponsor information


University of Cambridge (UK)

Sponsor details

Institute of Criminology
Sidgwick Site
United Kingdom

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

The evaluation is funded by the European Commission, Social Experimentation Grant (EC reference VS/2012/0345) awarded to the Greater London Authority/University of Cambridge (UK)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

The intervention is funded by the Education Endowment Foundation (UK)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Not provided at time of registration

Intention to publish date

Participant level data

Not provided at time of registration

Results - basic reporting

Publication summary

2016 results in:

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

22/08/2016: Publication reference added.