Condition category
Infections and Infestations
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
Malaria is a major cause of sickness and death in sub-Saharan Africa. Sleeping under an effective and long-lasting insecticidal net will protect people from malaria. Pyrethroid-treated bed nets are one of the major mosquito control methods used against malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. However, there are few places where vector mosquitoes (those that can cause malaria) are fully vulnerable to pyrethroid insecticides, so alternative treatments for nets are required urgently. Here we assess the durability of nets with a new combination of insecticides called permethrin and pyriproxyfen in comparison with a typical permethrin-treated net.

Who can participate?
Village residents who usually sleep on a bed can take part in this study.

What does the study involve?
Participating households in each village will be randomly allocated to receive either permethrin and pyriproxyfen treated nets or permethrin-treated nets. We will distribute the nets at the start of the transmission season and follow net use at the start and end of the transmission season, i.e. from 0 to 36 months after distribution. The effectiveness of the insecticide, chemical content along with net durability and fabric integrity will be recorded immediately after distribution, and then at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months. Routine measurements of indoor temperature and relative humidity will be made in both villages during the study. Residents will be followed for possible side effects of the permethrin and pyriproxyfen treated nets by looking for known asthmatic people during the first month after distribution and pregnancy outcomes will be monitored from antenatal clinic records.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
The results from this study will be of interest to those working on malaria control in Burkina Faso and other African countries. Although permethrin and pyriproxyfen are safe to humans, they have not been used together on a mosquito net before. For this reason we will monitor any side effects from both the combination nets and the nets just with permethrin.

Where is the study run from?
This study is run from two villages in Burkina Faso.

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
The study started in March 2014 and runs until May 2017.

Who is funding the study?
Innovative Vector Control Consortium (UK).

Who is the main contact?
Prof Steve Lindsay

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Prof Steve Lindsay


Contact details

School of Biological & Biomedical Sciences
Durham University
United Kingdom
+44 (0)191 334 1291

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number number

Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

To assess whether addition of pyriproxyfen to long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets increases their durability compared to standard long-lasting insecticidal mosquito nets: protocol for a cluster randomized study


Study hypothesis

Pyriproxyfen combined with permethrin on bednets will be just as durable as standard permethrin-treated nets.

Ethics approval

1. Ethics Committee for Health Research (Comité d'Ethique pour la Recherche en Santé), 02/05/2014, ref: 2014-0-025
2. National Centre for Research and Training on Malaria (Centre National de Recherche et de Formation sur le Paludisme), 27/03/2014, ref. 2014/025/MS/SG/CNRFP/CIB

Study design

Cluster randomized controlled trial of net durability, with clustering at the level of the compound with entomological outcome measurements.

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Cluster randomised trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet


Durability of mosquito nets


Two villages will take part in the trial. The compounds within each village will be randomly allocated to receive one of two types of bednets on a 50/50 basis
Control bednet: Olyset net with 2% w/w permethrin incorporated into polyethylene fibres
Intervention bednet: DUO net which contains 2% w/w permethrin and 1% w/w pyriproxyfen incorporated into polyethylene fibres.

Intervention type



Not Applicable

Drug names

Primary outcome measures

Bio-efficacy is either measured as:
1. Percentage adult female mortality 24 hours after exposure to netting
2. Percentage of viable offspring (1st or 2nd stage larvae) relative to the control group
This will be recorded immediately after net distribution and at 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months.

Secondary outcome measures

Proportion of nets in 'poor' condition, defined as:
1. Those that are not long enough to be tucked under the mattress
2. Torn or badly damaged
3. Has more than five holes (finger-width, approximate diameter 2 cm)
All outcomes will be measured at 0 weeks, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months.

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned


Participant inclusion criteria

1. Village residents who sleep in a bed
2. Those that provide their informed consent to participate in the trial

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants

Approximately 1500 subjects

Participant exclusion criteria

1. Non-residents
2. Residents who do not sleep in a bed
3. Those that do not provide their informed consent

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment

Burkina Faso

Trial participating centre

Durham University
United Kingdom

Sponsor information


Durham University (UK)

Sponsor details

c/o Prof Jon Davidson
Faculty of Science
Durham University
United Kingdom
+44 (0)191 334 2328

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

Innovative Vector Control Consortium (UK)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Not provided at time of registration

Intention to publish date

Participant level data

Not provided at time of registration

Results - basic reporting

Publication summary

2015 protocol in:

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes