Condition category
Musculoskeletal Diseases
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
Hypermobility is not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify how common joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is within jazz dancers, to test different ways of identifying JHS and to assesspotential risk factors for joint hypermobility in jazz dancers.

Who can participate?
Jazz dancers aged 18-25 years from the Polish Dance Theater

What does the study involve?
The participants were assessed for JHS symptoms using the following diagnostic tools: a structured interview, Beighton score (a physical test of joint flexibility), Grahame & Hakim questionnaire, and Sachse’s criteria, in the modified version proposed by Kapandji.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
The benefit of the study for participants is the diagnosis or exclusion of JHS. This study demonstrated a signicant prevalence of joint hypermobility in jazz dancers and corroborates the findings of other researchers, indicating the need for unified diagnostic criteria for JHS in dancers. Participants do not bear any risk by taking part in the study.

Where is the study run from?
Kielce Dance Theater.

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
January 2013 to January 2014.

Who is funding the study?
The study was funded by the principal investigator.

Who is the main contact?
Marlena Skwiot,

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Dr Marlena Skwiot


Contact details

Piastowska street 20B

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number number

Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

Comparing prevalence of joint hypermobility syndrome in jazz dancers using a structured interview, Beighton score, Grahame & Hakim questionnaire, and Kapandji-modified Sachse’s criteria


Study hypothesis

To assess the prevalence of joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) amongst a cohort of jazz dancers, by analyzing its presence in accordance with a number of diagnostic criteria, and to verify potential risk factors for joint hypermobility in jazz dancers.

Ethics approval

Bioethics Commission of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Jan Kochanowski in Kielce, 11/03/2013, 01/2013

Study design

Cross-sectional cohort study

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Cross sectional study

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use contact details to request a participant information sheet


Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS)


Data on the participants, including dance history and current dance performance, and the JHS symptoms they experienced was collected through a structured interview. Specific questions were asked about injuries, symptoms typical for the hypermobility syndrome such as chronic spinal pain, temporomandibular joint disorders and out-of-joint symptoms such as possible skin lesions, myopia, varicose veins. Interviews were carried out by the same physiotherapist. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with measures taken of standing height, using a stadiometer, and weight, using a standard set of scales. The presence of joint hypermobility syndrome was evaluated using the following diagnostic tools: Beighton score, Grahame & Hakim questionnaire, and Sachse’s criteria, in the version modified by Kapandji.

Intervention type

Not Specified


Drug names

Primary outcome measure

Prevalence of JHS

Secondary outcome measures


Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

1. Aged between 18 and 25 years
2. At least 3 years of dancing experience
3. Jazz dance as the dominant dance style

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Participant exclusion criteria

Injuries preventing dancing

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment


Trial participating centre

Kielce Dance Theatre
Moniuszki Place 2B

Sponsor information


Marlena Skwiot

Sponsor details

Piastowska Street 20B

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach

Alternative name(s)

Jan Kochanowski University, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce

Funding Body Type

private sector organisation

Funding Body Subtype




Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Planned publication in a high-impact peer-reviewed journal

IPD sharing statement
The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study during this study will be included in the subsequent results publication.

Intention to publish date


Participant level data

To be made available at a later date

Basic results (scientific)

The prevalence of JHS in the analyzed sample differed significantly, depending on the criteria of the analysis χ2(2) = 13.786; p = 0.001. According to the Sachse’s criteria, in the version modified by Kapandji, 59.7% of participants were diagnosed with JHS. On the other hand, Beighton’s score yielded a result of 64.9%, and Hakim & Grahame questionnaire a result of 74%.
On the basis of the structured interview, 46 participants, who were diagnosed with hypermobility using Sachse’s scale, revealed symptoms which may be related to JHS with chronic pain in the lumbar spine being the dominant one (56.5%). Reporting sensations of dislocations of the lower limbs was the second most frequently occurring symptom (39.1%). 28.3% of the participants reported having suffered an ankle sprain in the past. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain was the least frequently experienced symptom among the participants.
The chi-square test of independence showed a correlation between hypermobility and the participants’ gender. Hypermobility was significantly more prevalent in women than men, regardless of which diagnostic criteria were adopted: Sachse – χ2(1) = 11.206; p = 0.001, Beighton – χ2(1) = 6.485; p = 0.011, Hakim & Grahame – χ2(1) = 11.199; p = 0.001.
Due to the differences in JHS prevalence in men and women, the male and female participants were compared with regard to the following variables: body mass [kg], height [m], dancing experience [years], frequency of practice sessions [h/week], using the Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that, on average, women were thinner (M = 53.64, SD = 5.61 vs. M = 72.68, SD = 5.04; U = 3.5, p < 0.0001) and shorter (M = 166.96, SD = 3.61 vs. M = 178.68, SD = 4.27; U = 24.5, p < 0.0001) than men. No significant differences between men and women were found with regard to their dancing experience (M = 9.42, SD = 4.83 vs. M = 10.21, SD = 4.32; U = 403.5, p = 0.339), the frequency of practice sessions (M = 12.36, SD = 14.22 vs. M = 19.16, SD = 16.26; U = 355.5, p = 0.112).

Publication list

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes