Plain English Summary
Background and study aims
Hypermobility is not well understood. The aim of this study was to identify how common joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) is within jazz dancers, to test different ways of identifying JHS and to assesspotential risk factors for joint hypermobility in jazz dancers.
Who can participate?
Jazz dancers aged 18-25 years from the Polish Dance Theater
What does the study involve?
The participants were assessed for JHS symptoms using the following diagnostic tools: a structured interview, Beighton score (a physical test of joint flexibility), Grahame & Hakim questionnaire, and Sachse’s criteria, in the modified version proposed by Kapandji.
What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
The benefit of the study for participants is the diagnosis or exclusion of JHS. This study demonstrated a signicant prevalence of joint hypermobility in jazz dancers and corroborates the findings of other researchers, indicating the need for unified diagnostic criteria for JHS in dancers. Participants do not bear any risk by taking part in the study.
Where is the study run from?
Kielce Dance Theater.
When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
January 2013 to January 2014.
Who is funding the study?
The study was funded by the principal investigator.
Who is the main contact?
Marlena Skwiot, firstname.lastname@example.org
Dr Marlena Skwiot
Piastowska street 20B
Comparing prevalence of joint hypermobility syndrome in jazz dancers using a structured interview, Beighton score, Grahame & Hakim questionnaire, and Kapandji-modified Sachse’s criteria
To assess the prevalence of joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS) amongst a cohort of jazz dancers, by analyzing its presence in accordance with a number of diagnostic criteria, and to verify potential risk factors for joint hypermobility in jazz dancers.
Bioethics Commission of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the University of Jan Kochanowski in Kielce, 11/03/2013, 01/2013
Cross-sectional cohort study
Primary study design
Secondary study design
Cross sectional study
Patient information sheet
Not available in web format, please use contact details to request a participant information sheet
Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS)
Data on the participants, including dance history and current dance performance, and the JHS symptoms they experienced was collected through a structured interview. Specific questions were asked about injuries, symptoms typical for the hypermobility syndrome such as chronic spinal pain, temporomandibular joint disorders and out-of-joint symptoms such as possible skin lesions, myopia, varicose veins. Interviews were carried out by the same physiotherapist. All subjects underwent anthropometric assessment with measures taken of standing height, using a stadiometer, and weight, using a standard set of scales. The presence of joint hypermobility syndrome was evaluated using the following diagnostic tools: Beighton score, Grahame & Hakim questionnaire, and Sachse’s criteria, in the version modified by Kapandji.
Primary outcome measure
Prevalence of JHS
Secondary outcome measures
Overall trial start date
Overall trial end date
Reason abandoned (if study stopped)
Participant inclusion criteria
1. Aged between 18 and 25 years
2. At least 3 years of dancing experience
3. Jazz dance as the dominant dance style
Target number of participants
Participant exclusion criteria
Injuries preventing dancing
Recruitment start date
Recruitment end date
Countries of recruitment
Trial participating centre
Kielce Dance Theatre
Moniuszki Place 2B
Piastowska Street 20B
Uniwersytet Jana Kochanowskiego w Kielcach
Jan Kochanowski University, Jan Kochanowski University in Kielce
Funding Body Type
private sector organisation
Funding Body Subtype
Results and Publications
Publication and dissemination plan
Planned publication in a high-impact peer-reviewed journal
IPD sharing statement
The datasets generated and/or analysed during the current study during this study will be included in the subsequent results publication.
Intention to publish date
Participant level data
To be made available at a later date
Basic results (scientific)
The prevalence of JHS in the analyzed sample differed significantly, depending on the criteria of the analysis χ2(2) = 13.786; p = 0.001. According to the Sachse’s criteria, in the version modified by Kapandji, 59.7% of participants were diagnosed with JHS. On the other hand, Beighton’s score yielded a result of 64.9%, and Hakim & Grahame questionnaire a result of 74%.
On the basis of the structured interview, 46 participants, who were diagnosed with hypermobility using Sachse’s scale, revealed symptoms which may be related to JHS with chronic pain in the lumbar spine being the dominant one (56.5%). Reporting sensations of dislocations of the lower limbs was the second most frequently occurring symptom (39.1%). 28.3% of the participants reported having suffered an ankle sprain in the past. Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) pain was the least frequently experienced symptom among the participants.
The chi-square test of independence showed a correlation between hypermobility and the participants’ gender. Hypermobility was significantly more prevalent in women than men, regardless of which diagnostic criteria were adopted: Sachse – χ2(1) = 11.206; p = 0.001, Beighton – χ2(1) = 6.485; p = 0.011, Hakim & Grahame – χ2(1) = 11.199; p = 0.001.
Due to the differences in JHS prevalence in men and women, the male and female participants were compared with regard to the following variables: body mass [kg], height [m], dancing experience [years], frequency of practice sessions [h/week], using the Mann-Whitney U test. The results showed that, on average, women were thinner (M = 53.64, SD = 5.61 vs. M = 72.68, SD = 5.04; U = 3.5, p < 0.0001) and shorter (M = 166.96, SD = 3.61 vs. M = 178.68, SD = 4.27; U = 24.5, p < 0.0001) than men. No significant differences between men and women were found with regard to their dancing experience (M = 9.42, SD = 4.83 vs. M = 10.21, SD = 4.32; U = 403.5, p = 0.339), the frequency of practice sessions (M = 12.36, SD = 14.22 vs. M = 19.16, SD = 16.26; U = 355.5, p = 0.112).