Condition category
Infections and Infestations
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
COVID-19 is a condition caused by the coronavirus (called SARS-CoV-2) that was first identified in late 2019. This virus can infect the respiratory (breathing) system. Some people do not have symptoms but can carry the virus and pass it on to others. People who have developed the condition may develop a fever and/or a continuous cough among other symptoms. This can develop into pneumonia. Pneumonia is a chest infection where the small air pockets of the lungs, called alveoli, fill with liquid and make it more difficult to breathe.

In 2020, the virus has spread to many countries around the world and neither a vaccine against the virus or specific treatment for COVID-19 has yet been developed. As of March 2020, it is advised that people minimize travel and social contact, and regularly wash their hands to reduce the spread of the virus.

Groups who are at a higher risk from infection with the virus, and therefore of developing COVID-19, include people aged over 70 years, people who have long-term health conditions (such as asthma or diabetes), people who have a weakened immune system and people who are pregnant. People in these groups, and people who might come into contact with them, can reduce this risk by following the up-to-date advice to reduce the spread of the virus.

There is very little known amount the risk factors among those with diabetes that contribute to risk of COVID-19. This study aims to understand the risks of and risk factors for COVID-19 in people with diabetes

Who can participate?
People living with or without diabetes in Scotland with COVID-19

What does the study involve?
Health records of people with COVID-19 will be compared to records of people with and without diabetes to find risk factors that contribute to death with COVID-19 in diabetes patients.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?

Where is the study run from?
Public Health Scotland (UK)

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
April 2020 to July 2020

Who is funding the study?
Public Health Scotland (UK)

Who is the main contact?
Professor Helen Colhoun,

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Prof Helen Colhoun


Contact details

Institute of Genetics and Molecular Medicine
University of Edinburgh
Western General Hospital
Crewe Road South
United Kingdom
+44 (0)7791652665

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number

Nil known number

Nil known

Protocol/serial number

PBPP ref. 1617- 0147

Study information

Scientific title

Risk of and risk factors for fatal or critical care unit treated COVID-19 and development of a risk prediction model in people with diabetes in Scotland: A cohort study


Study hypothesis

1. Ascertain the cumulative risk of fatal or CCU treated COVID -19 in those with diabetes and compare it to those without diabetes
2. Among those with diabetes to investigate risk factors for, and build a cross-validated predictive model of, fatal or CCU treated COVID-19

Ethics approval

1. Approved 06/04/2020, Public Benefit Privacy Protection Panel Scotland (no address provided; no telephone number provided;, PBPP ref. 1617- 0147
2. Approved 01/06/2011, Scotland A Research Ethics Committee (2nd Floor Waverly Gate
2-4 Waterloo Place, Edinburgh, EH1 3EG, UK; +44 (0)131 465 5680;, ref: 11/AL/0225

Study design

Observational cohort

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Cohort study

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

No participant information sheet available


COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2 infection), diabetes


In the total population of Scotland (5.6 million) we will ascertain all persons who had developed fatal or critical care unit-treated COVID-19 (hereafter F/CCU-COVID-19) between 1st March and July 31st 2020 from the nationwide virology, critical care unit, hospital discharge and register of deaths databases. Among those with F/CCU-COVID-19, diabetes status will be ascertained by linkage to the national diabetes register. The cumulative incidence of F/CCU-COVID-19 in those with and without diabetes will be compared using logistic regression. Among those with diabetes, data on potential risk factors for F/CCU-COVID-19 will be obtained from diabetes register and other linked health administrative databases. Among those with diabetes we will test association of these factors with F/CCU-COVID-19 and construct a prediction model using stepwise regression and 20-fold cross-validation.

Intervention type

Not Specified


Drug names

Primary outcome measure

Fatal of Critical care Unit COVID-19 defined with cases ascertained on the basis of positive rtPCR test, hospital admission and death certification and this level of severity defined using linkage to the national critical care unit database (SICSAG) and death certification data (types of information included laboratory test results, ICD10 codes for hospital discharge diagnoses, dates of entry into critical care units and cause of death on death certificates)

Secondary outcome measures


Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

People of any age living with or without diabetes in Scotland

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Total final enrolment


Participant exclusion criteria

Does not meet inclusion criteria

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment

United Kingdom

Trial participating centre

Public Health Scotland
Meridian Court 5 Cadogan Street
G2 6QE
United Kingdom

Sponsor information


Health Protection Scotland

Sponsor details

Public Health Scotland
Meridian Court
5 Cadogan Street
G2 6QE
United Kingdom
+44 (0)141 300 1100

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

Public Health Scotland

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Planned publication at The Lancet - Diabetes & Endocrinology

IPD sharing statement:
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study are available from the Scottish Public Benefits and Privacy Protection Committee

Intention to publish date


Participant level data

Available on request

Basic results (scientific)

Publication list

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

16/10/2020: Trial’s existence confirmed by NHS Scotland.