Condition category
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Not provided at time of registration

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Dr Renata Riha


Contact details

Department of Sleep Medicine
Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh
51 Little France Crescent
EH16 4SA
United Kingdom
+44 (0)131 242 3882

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number number

Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

Controlled prospective trial of the effectiveness of continuous positive airway pressure therapy in adults with Down's syndrome


Study hypothesis

Continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) use in Down's syndrome (DS) adults with obstructive sleep apnoea/hypopnoea syndrome (OSAHS)/sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) improves sleepiness and quality of life more effectively than lifestyle measures alone.

Ethics approval

Scotland A Research Ethics Committee, 28/02/2011 and substantial amendment on 17/05/2011, ref: 11/MRE00/3

Study design

Repeated measures parallel-arm controlled intention to treat study

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Randomised controlled trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please use the contact details below to request a patient information sheet


Sleep disordered breathing, obstructive sleep apnoea, Down's syndrome


All participants with a diagnosis of sleep apnoea on home sleep study will be randomised to either the Lifestyle group or the CPAP Group. Participants allocated to the Lifestyle Group will receive written lifestyle advice on diet, exercise, sleep hygiene and sleeping position. Participants allocated to the CPAP Group will receive CPAP at the optimal pressure to treat their symptoms, along with written lifestyle advice as per the Lifestyle Group. Participants in both groups will be followed up at 1 week & at 1 month after randomisation. After 1 month, the Lifestyle Group will be offered CPAP, with additional follow ups at 1 week and 1 month after commencing CPAP. Both groups will then be followed at 3 months and 6 months after randomisation. At 6 months, participation in the study is complete, and all participants will be encouraged to remain on CPAP.

Participants in both limbs will have anthropometric measures, cognitive function tests, health questionnaires, carer questionnaires and documentation of healthcare contact at baseline (randomisation), 1 month, 3 months & 6 months. All participants will complete and return a monthly diary recording health care contact, caffeine intake, medication, health questionnaires and a carer questionnaire.

Intervention type



Not Applicable

Drug names

Primary outcome measure

1. Change in Subjective Sleepiness: Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS) recorded at baseline, 1 week and monthly thereafter (averaged over 1, 3, and 6 months).
2. Change in health related quality of life: EQ-5D (measured at measured at baseline, 1, 3 and 6 months) valued using UK population tariffs. This will be used to estimate the cost per quality-adjusted life year (QALY) gained by providing CPAP in comparison to lifestyle measures. The analysis will incorporate health care utilisation, including hospital visits and GP visits during the trial (recorded by monthly diary) and 3 months prior to trial entry (obtained via GP letter and review of patient records).

Secondary outcome measures

1. Objective changes in emotional and behavioural function: Modified DBC-A - measured at baseline and monthly thereafter
2. Health status (quality of life): SF-12, SAQLI - baseline, 1, 3, 6 months
3. Cognitive function: All tests deleted, replaced with Arizona Cognitive Test Battery (ACTB) (Added 31/05/2011)
4. Adverse events: Side effects associated with CPAP usage, such as dry mouth - baseline and monthly thereafter, + 1 week after commencing treatment
5. Compliance with CPAP: Average hours of use per night from in-built machine timeclocks - baseline, 1, 3, 6 months
6. Carer burden: Modified CBI, GHQ-12, open-ended qualitative comments about the experience of caring - baseline and monthly thereafter

Previous secondary outcome measures:
3. Cognitive function: Leiter-R, BPVSII, Raven Matrices, DSQIID - baseline, 1, 3, 6 months

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

For the prevalence study:
1. Age greater than or equal to 16 years, either sex
2. A clinical diagnosis of Down's syndrome

Additionally, for CPAP evaluation:
3. A clinical diagnosis of OSAHS (greater than or equal to 10 obstructive apnoeas hour on multichannel sleep study and symptoms of excessive daytime sleepiness or Epworth Sleepiness Scale [ESS] greater than or equal to 9)
4. Ability to give informed consent and comply with protocol (participant and/or relative/carer, as appropriate)

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Participant exclusion criteria

1. Previous exposure to CPAP therapy
2. Arterial oxygen saturation less than 90% on room air
3. Participants with forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) less than 60%
4. Participants with chronic heart failure or recent myocardial infarction (heart attack)
5. Participants with known moderate or severe dementia
6. Participants with severe behavioural problems that would preclude sleep studies or CPAP treatment
7. Inability to give informed consent AND relative/carer unable or unwilling to give informed consent
8. Inability to comply with the protocol

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment

United Kingdom

Trial participating centre

Department of Sleep Medicine
The Royal Infirmary of Edinburgh 51 Little France Crescent Old Dalkeith Road
EH16 4SA
United Kingdom

Sponsor information


University of Edinburgh and NHS Lothian (UK) - Joint Sponsorship

Sponsor details

c/o Gemma Watson
The Queen’s Medical Research Institute
47 Little France Crescent
EH16 4TJ
United Kingdom
+44 (0)131 242 9461

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

Chief Scientist Office of the Scottish Executive Health Department (UK) (ref: CZH/4/549)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

Fondation Jerome Lejeune (France) (ref: R41361-195RSP)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

Added 08/10/2013:

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

Baily Thomas Charitable Trust (ref: TRUST/RNA/AC/TM/2634-5178)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Not provided at time of registration

Intention to publish date

Participant level data

Not provided at time of registration

Basic results (scientific)

Publication list

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

12/01/2017: No publications found in PubMed. Verifying study status with principal investigator. 08/10/2013: Anticipated end date was changed from 01/02/2013 to 31/12/2014.