Condition category
Mental and Behavioural Disorders
Date applied
Date assigned
Last edited
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting
Publication status

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims:
Adolescent antisocial behavior is known to lead to psychosocial difficulties during adolescence and adulthood. A way to reach at-risk adolescents is through the parents. Parent training has shown to be effective in changing the child’s behavior and mental health during adolescence. In this study, two parent programs are compared, ParentSteps and Comet, which target parents of at-risk adolescents aged 12 - 18 years. The aims of the programs are to train parents to help their adolescents to change their problem behavior, and to teach parents to encourage pro-social behavior. The aim of the study was to find out if either of the programs is effective in decreasing the levels of antisocial behaviour, such as substance use and delinquency, and in increasing the levels of social functioning.

Who can participate?
Two-hundred and forty families and adolescents participated in the study. Only families where the parent reported a certain level of antisocial behaviour in the adolescent could participate.

What does the study involve?
Families where randomly allocated to one of the following groups for training sessions:
1. ParentSteps
2. Comet
3. Six months waiting list control group.
Only parents participated in the parent training sessions, but both parents and adolescents answered questionnaires about the adolescents’ problem behaviour.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Parents could participate in training for free, exchange parental experiences with others in the group, and improve parental skills and techniques to change the adolescents' problem behaviour.
Youths would benefit from improved family relations. There were no known risks associated with participating in this study.

Where is the study run from?
Stockholm Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education, Sweden

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
August 2008 to June 2010

Who is funding the study?
Swedish Ministry of Health and Social Affairs and the Swedish National Board of Health and Welfare.

Who is the main contact?
Camilla Jalling

Trial website

Contact information



Primary contact

Dr Anders Tengstrom


Contact details

Research Centre for Psychosocial Health at Stockholm Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education
Stockholm County Council Health Care Provision and Karolinska Institutet
Danderyds sjukhus
Hus 40
Plan 1
182 87

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number number

Protocol/serial number


Study information

Scientific title

Effectiveness of two parent training programs for reducing adolescent's antisocial behavior: a randomized controlled trial


Study hypothesis

Both the intervention groups, who were assigned to receive either ParentSteps or Comet, will get decreased levels of antisocial behaviour, compared to control group, and increased levels in psychosocial functioning.

Ethics approval

Regional Ethical Board, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, 25/06/2008, ref: 2008/744-31/5

Study design

Randomized controlled trial

Primary study design


Secondary study design

Randomised controlled trial

Trial setting


Trial type


Patient information sheet

Not available in web format, please contact Camilla Jalling at to request the patient information sheet


Antisocial behavior and low psycho-social functioning


Two intervention groups (Comet and ParentSteps) and a waiting list control group:

Two parent training programs, based on Swedish modified versions of Parent Management Training (Comet), and Strengthening Families Program for parents and youths 10-14 (SFP10-14) (ParentSteps).

The Comet program format is held by two certified group leaders in nine compulsory sessions and one optional within six months after last session.

ParentSteps program format comprises of six compulsory sessions lead by two trained leaders.

Data were collected at baseline, and at six and twelve months after baseline, by both parents and adolescents. The control group was measured at only baseline and the six-month follow-up.

Intervention type



Drug names

Primary outcome measure

Adolescent externalizing behavior, using:
1. Adolescent Self-Report Delinquency Scale (SRD) to measure the quantity of criminal activities during the last six months, on a 0 to 9 times or more numerical scale
2. Youth Self-Report (YSR/CBCL) to describe externalized and internalized anti-social behavior based on the preceding six months, on a 3-point Likert scale ( 0=not true, 1=somewhat or sometimes true, 2=very true or very often true). For parents, the parent version CBCL was used for assessing parents’ reports of their adolescents’ anti-social behavior
3. Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test (AUDIT) for measuring alcohol risk consumption
4. Drug Use Disorder Identification Test (DUDIT) for measuring drug consumption

Secondary outcome measures

Adolescent psychosocial functioning, using:
Youth Outcome Questionnaire (Y-OQ®), adolescent and parent version, based on the preceding seven days, to assess treatment progress concerning psychosocial and mental functioning, rated on a 5-point Likert scale

Overall trial start date


Overall trial end date


Reason abandoned (if study stopped)


Participant inclusion criteria

1. Parents or other caregiver, and their adolescent aged 12-18
2. Living in Stockholm
3. Youth showing signs of antisocial behavior (ex criminal activities, mobbing others, repeated conflict about family rules, substance use (alcohol, tobacco and/or drugs)
4. Youth showing signs of low psychosocial functioning

Participant type


Age group




Target number of participants


Participant exclusion criteria

Youth should not:
1. Be in psychotherapy
2. Be in treatment at alcohol treatment care center
3. Be placed in institution or family home, at the time for signing up for participation in the trial
4. Parents could not be in any other parental program at the time for signing up for particiaption in the trial

Recruitment start date


Recruitment end date



Countries of recruitment


Trial participating centre

Research Centre for Psychosocial Health at Stockholm Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education
182 87

Sponsor information


Stockholm Prevents Alcohol and Drug Problems (STAD) (Sweden)

Sponsor details

Centrum för Psykiatriforskning Stockholm
Stockholm Centre for Psychiatric Research and Education
Stockholms läns sjukvårdsområde/Karolinska Institutet
Box 6031
102 31

Sponsor type




Funder type


Funder name

The National Drug Policy Coordinator, Ministry of Health and Social Affairs (Sweden)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

Socialstyrelsen (ref: 00-106/08-4)

Alternative name(s)

National Board of Health and Welfare

Funding Body Type

government organisation

Funding Body Subtype

National government



Funder name

Stockholm City Council, Stockholm FoU within Social Development Unit (Sweden)

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

Swedish Council for Information on Alcohol and Other Drugs/Systembolaget Research Board (Sweden) ref: 10-28:1

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype


Funder name

Swedish Council for Working life and Social Research (FAS) (Sweden) ref: 2009-1705

Alternative name(s)

Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, FAS

Funding Body Type

private sector organisation

Funding Body Subtype

Other non-profit organizations



Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

Not provided at time of registration

Intention to publish date

Participant level data

Not provided at time of registration

Basic results (scientific)

Publication list

2016 results in:

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes

24/02/2016: Publication reference added.