Condition category
Not Applicable
Date applied
15/06/2017
Date assigned
23/06/2017
Last edited
23/06/2017
Prospective/Retrospective
Retrospectively registered
Overall trial status
Ongoing
Recruitment status
No longer recruiting

Plain English Summary

Background and study aims
Reading comprehension is a foundational skill for learning and there is currently international focus on explicitly targeting pupils' reading comprehension skills. Reciprocal reading is a programme that targets pupils’ ability to use active strategies to enhance their understanding of what they are reading. This is done by teaching pupils to use four strategies – summarising, questioning, predicting and clarifying. After using these strategies in dialogue with an adult and their peers, pupils carry out learning tasks to consolidate their understanding of what they have read. The programme aims to explicitly teach reading comprehension strategies in order to improve reading skills. The programme can be used with whole-classes or with targeted groups of pupils who are weak at reading comprehension, but who have relatively stronger reading decoding skills. The aim of this study is to find out whether the FFT Reciprocal Reading programme has an impact on children’s reading skills. It also examines factors associated with the delivery of the programme by speaking to teachers and pupils about their experiences.

Who can participate?
State-funded primary schools in England which have not previously received the Fischer Family Trust literacy package of training (external and internal) to deliver Reciprocal Reading and which are not currently involved in any other EEF KS2 literacy trials. Pupils entering Year 4 in the 2017/18 academic year are considered as potential participants for the whole-class programme and pupils entering Year 5 and 6 in the 2017/18 academic year who have poor comprehension skills, but stronger decoding skills (as selected by teachers), are eligible for the targeted programme.

What does the study involve?
Participating schools are randomly allocated to either the intervention group, which receives the reciprocal reading training programme, or a control group, who do not receive the training programme. Teachers and teaching assistants of Year 4, 5 and 6 classes in the schools which deliver the FFT Reciprocal Reading programme receive two external training sessions from Fischer Family Trust, as well as three internal follow-up sessions. Teachers and teaching assistants use their training to deliver the programme over two terms. The Fischer Family Trust (FFT) Reciprocal Reading programme is delivered by teachers or teaching assistants over the course of two school terms. In the whole-class version sessions are delivered once a week and in the targeted version sessions are delivered twice a week, for 20-30 minutes. Teachers are asked to complete a reading test with participating pupils before the programme is started (May to July 2017). After two terms (April to June 2018) the participating pupils complete another reading test. Interviews are also carried out with teaching staff and pupils and there are observations of the programme being delivered in a sample of the schools. The data is analysed to answer the question of whether the FFT Reciprocal Reading programme impacts children’s reading skills.

What are the possible benefits and risks of participating?
Benefits to participating schools include the provision of training, materials and ongoing support for the delivery of the FFT Reciprocal Reading programme during the 2017/18 school year. There are no risks associated with participating.

Where is the study run from?
The evaluation is run by an independent evaluation team based at Queen’s University Belfast. The programme delivery is managed and supported by the charity Fischer Family Trust Literacy based in Middlesbrough (UK).

When is the study starting and how long is it expected to run for?
January 2017 to December 2018

Who is funding the study?
Education Endowment Foundation (UK)

Who is the main contact?
Dr Liam O’Hare

Trial website

https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/our-work/projects/reciprocal-reading/

Contact information

Type

Public

Primary contact

Dr Liam O'Hare

ORCID ID

Contact details

School of Social Sciences
Education and Social Work
Queen's University
69-71 University Street
Belfast
BT7 1HL
United Kingdom

Additional identifiers

EudraCT number

ClinicalTrials.gov number

Protocol/serial number

Reciprocal reading trial

Study information

Scientific title

A cluster randomised controlled trial of Reciprocal Reading: a training programme for teachers aimed at improving reading skills of pupils

Acronym

Study hypothesis

1. Does the universal Reciprocal Reading approach impact pupil reading outcomes?
2. Does the targeted Reciprocal Reading approach impact pupil reading outcomes?

Ethics approval

School of Social Sciences, Education and Social Work Research Ethics Committee, Queen’s University Belfast, 16/02/2017

Study design

Cluster randomised controlled trial

Primary study design

Interventional

Secondary study design

Cluster randomised trial

Trial setting

Schools

Trial type

Other

Patient information sheet

No participant information sheet available

Condition

Literacy attainment

Intervention

Participating schools are randomised (minimisation via QMinim programme) to either the intervention group, which receives the reciprocal reading training programme, or a control group, whom will not receive the training programme.

Teachers and teaching assistants of Year 4, 5 and 6 classes in the schools which deliver the FFT Reciprocal Reading programme will receive two external training sessions from Fischer Family Trust, as well as three internal follow-up sessions. Training for the whole-class and targeted programme is similar.

Training for the whole-class and targeted programme is similar. Teachers and teaching assistants engage initially in one full day’s training with FFT which covers the following: background to reciprocal reading, rationale and evidence for the programme, understanding the four reciprocal reading strategies; what reading comprehension involves, why it is difficult and what weak comprehenders do, vocabulary and comprehension monitoring, what reciprocal readers do; whole-school issues including the benefits of consistent comprehension practices and policy-building; the ‘simple view of reading’ as a way to identify which children might benefit most from reciprocal reading; managing the practical implementation of the programme including planning and recording techniques; observation of training video illustrating the intervention with discussion of potential barriers to engagement; preparing a reciprocal reading session and implementing it in the training context; practicalities and discussion of what can and cannot be adapted.

The programme is then implemented in school by the trained professionals for half a term after which a consultation visit from FFT takes place. Practitioners are supported to reflect on and audit their practice.

At the start of the second term of the academic year there is a second full training day which includes the following: modelling of a reciprocal reading session; demonstration of activities to follow-up reciprocal reading sessions (book journal activities); discussion of implementation experiences; how to introduce challenge into sessions using questioning and modelling, text choices and follow-up activities; discussion of check-list for implementation; understanding the role of the teacher as facilitator; feedback to students; pupil self-evaluation.
A further visit from FFT will include observation of lesson implementation.

A third consultation visit in the final term of the academic year will address whole-school ethos and culture around comprehension, further auditing of implementation of the programme and consideration of the potential for programme to impact across the curriculum.

Teachers and teaching assistants deliver the programme over two terms. Pupils entering Year 4 in the 2017/18 academic year will be considered as potential participants for the whole-class programme and pupils entering Year 5 and 6 in the 2017/18 academic year who have poor comprehension skills, but stronger decoding skills (as selected by teachers), will be eligible for the targeted programme. In the whole-class version sessions are delivered once a week and in the targeted version sessions are delivered twice a week, for 20-30 minutes.

Teachers are asked to complete a reading test (New Group Reading Test - Granada Learning) with participating pupils before the programme is implemented (May to July 2017). After two terms (April to June 2018) the participating pupils will complete another reading test (New Group Reading Test). Interviews are also carried out with teaching staff and pupils and there will be observations of the programme being delivered in a sample of the schools. The data will be analysed to answer the question of whether the FFT Reciprocal Reading programme impacts children’s reading skills.

Intervention type

Behavioural

Phase

Drug names

Primary outcome measures

Reading comprehension, measured using New Group Reading Test scores at baseline and 6-8 months (exact timing will vary by school)

Secondary outcome measures

Reading and decoding, measured using New Group Reading Test scores at baseline and 6-8 months (exact timing will vary by school)

Overall trial start date

01/01/2017

Overall trial end date

31/12/2018

Reason abandoned

Eligibility

Participant inclusion criteria

1. State-funded primary schools in England which have not previously received the Fischer Family Trust literacy package of training (external and internal) to deliver Reciprocal Reading and which are not currently involved in any other EEF Key Stage 2 literacy trials
2. Pupils entering Year 4 in the 2017/18 academic year will be considered as potential participants for the whole-class programme
3. Pupils entering Year 5 and 6 in the 2017/18 academic year who have poor comprehension skills, but stronger decoding skills (as selected by teachers), will be eligible for the targeted programme

Participant type

Other

Age group

Child

Gender

Both

Target number of participants

6200 in 100 schools

Participant exclusion criteria

1. Schools not in England
2. Non state-funded schools
3. Schools which are involved in other EEF Key Stage 2 literacy trials
4. Schools which have previously received the Fischer Family Trust literacy package of training to deliver Reciprocal Reading

Recruitment start date

01/01/2017

Recruitment end date

30/06/2017

Locations

Countries of recruitment

United Kingdom

Trial participating centre

Queen's University Belfast
School of Social Sciences, Education and Social Work 69-71 University Street
Belfast
BT7 1HL
United Kingdom

Sponsor information

Organisation

Queen's University Belfast

Sponsor details

University Road
Belfast
Belfast
BT7 1NN
United Kingdom
+44 (0)28 9097 5973
L.OHare@qub.ac.uk

Sponsor type

University/education

Website

http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/cesi/

Funders

Funder type

Charity

Funder name

Education Endowment Foundation

Alternative name(s)

Funding Body Type

Funding Body Subtype

Location

Results and Publications

Publication and dissemination plan

The final evaluation report will be openly available on the funders’ website (https://educationendowmentfoundation.org.uk/) and on the evaluator’s website (http://www.qub.ac.uk/research-centres/cesi/).

IPD sharing statement
The datasets generated during and/or analysed during the current study will be stored in a repository (Fischer Family Trust Data lab, http://educationdatalab.org.uk/) and will be available in Summer 2019. Consent from the participants was included in the ethics consent. Scores for the Granada New Group Reading Test are anonymized at the point of UP (unique pupil number).

Intention to publish date

31/12/2018

Participant level data

Stored in repository

Results - basic reporting

Publication summary

Publication citations

Additional files

Editorial Notes